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A&P 1

Lymphatic System

immunity capacity to resist disease
antigen foreign substance
what does immunity provide protection from? pathogenic diseases "bug" (bacterial, viral, fungal etc), toxins, cancers
lymphatic vessels lymphatics
fluid lymph
cells lymphocytes, phagocytes, leukocytes etc
lymphoid tissue & organs spleen, lymph nodes
what happens in lymph tissues and organs? maturation of immune cells, filter of all bad stuff out
functions of lymphoid system regulate lymphocytes, filter clean up of lymph fluid, return fluid and solutes to blood
where does fluid return to after it's been filtered? to the blood through the subclavian veins/ upper chest
what percentage of fluid makes it back into the capillary? 90%
what happens to the rest of the fluid that does not go back into the capillary? 10% goes back into the lymphatic vessels?
which direction does the lymph flow? from left to right
what happens if the fluid tries to go the other direction? if fluid tries to flow from right to left, the capillary or vessel will close to push it back into the right direction (Chinese finger trap)
what do the valves do? allows unidirectional flow and prevents back flow
does anything else in the body have the same sort of valve system? yes, the veins
right lymphatic duct brings fluid from Right part then brings it back. (right side of head neck arm and chest)
Thoracic duct brings fluid from the rest of the body that the Right duct does not filter.
when fluid goes back into subclavian veins and upper chest, where does it head next? the heart, to filter into the blood
how many classes of lymphocytes? 3: TCells, BCells, NK Cells
T Cells Thymus dependent (in order to mature)
B Cells Bone Marrow derived (although all cells come from marrow)
NK Cells natural killer cells
2 kinds of leukocytes Granulocytes and agranulocytes
3 granulocytes neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
what does agranulocytes mean? no granules
complement` soluble protein
name the innate immunity cells granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils), macrophages, complement
name the adaptive cells lymphocytes (T Cells, B Cells, NK Cells)
which cell is the QB? T Cell (CD4+ T Helper)
what kills the T Cell (CD4+ T Helper) HIV
thymus organ that sits on top of heart, used for maturation of T Cells, hormone thymosin
where do the T Cells go to be "educated" to recognize enemies? thymus
spleen function blood cleaning, removal of old blood cells, iron storage, initiation of lymphocyte maturation
complement system soluble protein from blood that stick to membrane and puncture membrane until it dies.
adaptive immunity won't work until after it's been exposed, certain T Cells can attack certain antigens, have specialized memory
innate immunity ready to work right away and extremely general cells
Immune Response 1st exposure (several weeks) immune system reacts (bot B and T Cells), fights disease, creates memory
Immune Response 2nd exposure (days) memory cells react faster/stronger, no signs or symptoms, no disease
antibodies have what kind of shape? a Y shape
IgG 2nd response, milk
IgA sweat, mucous (sucks) (2 Y's on top of one another shape)
IgE allergies
IgM primary response (5 Y shape)
IgD B Cell activation/regulation
acquired/adaptive immunity goes to which two steps next? active immunity (produced by antibodies developed in response to antigens/immune response) or passive immunity (produced by transfer of antibodies from another person
in Active Immunity, which two possibilities could it be? naturally acquired active immunity (a cold/virus) or Induced active immunity (vaccinations)
In Passive Immunity which two possibilities could it be? naturally acquired passive immunity (breast milk or placenta) or induced passive immunity (plasma )
does innate immunity have any directions it can go? no-genetically determined no prior exposure
immunogen molecule that induces and immune response
antigen molecule that induces body to make antibodies
allergen molecule that induces and allergic reaction or hypersensitivity
allergies excessive immune response to an antigen
how many types of allergies 4
type I allergy most common
what is Type I allergy mediated by? basophil mast cells, IgE
How does a Basophil Cell act like a grenade? inside it is grainy, and eventually releases the grain (histamine) after it is primed with antibodies. when allergy reaches cell, the cell will explode (degranulation) releasing the histamine and now you suffer from an allergy
which cells create the IgE? B Cells
are you allergic to cat dander the first time you are exposed? no, your body will not realize there is an allergy until it gets exposed to the dander, then when you see cats again the body remembers and increases production of IgE which will stick to the basophil cells.
T Cell and Nk Cell functions immune control/regulation, cytotoxic response (cell-mediated immunity) cells directly kill other things
B Cells secrete antibodies (humoral immunity)
which cells can dissolve in the blood B Cells
apoptosis cell commits suicide
Lymph nodes are an areolar tissue with densely packed lymphocytes
what can be said about the ways in and out of lymph node many ways in, one way out
what two things can be said about the structure of a lymph node? trabeculae shape, and a helium (centered location of an artery/vein)
distribution of lymphoid nodules Lymph node, spleen, respiratory tract (tonsils), along digestive/urinary tract
what are the 3 types of tonsils and their positioning? top tonsil-pharyngeal, middle tonsil-palatine, bottom tonsil-lingual
Created by: purplepurn