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A&P 1

Nervous System

Neuron Nerve cell, conducts electricity (action potential)
Neuroglia (glial cells) support, do NOT conduct electricity
CNS central nervous system, contains brain and spinal cord
PNS peripheral nervous system, sensory receptors, sense organs, nerves (bundle of many neurons)
somatic receptors monitor outside world (eyes, ears)
visceral receptors messages happening from within
afferent division incoming sensory
the central nervous system does what? the information processing
efferent division motor neuron (outgoing message)
somatic nervous system you're aware of this action, goes to skeletal muscle
autonomic nervous system happening on its own, goes to parasympathetic or sympathetic , which both go to either smooth muscle, cardiac muscle or glands
parasympathetic rest/digest
sympathetic fight/flight
hopeless fear extreme parasympathetic (shock)
how many types of neuron structures? 3: multipolar, bipolar, unipolar
multipolar neuron longer extension (axon) common in CNS, include all motor neurons
unipolar neuron sensory neurons of PNS body offset on top
bipolar neuron body in center, special sensory organs like sight hearing smell.
synaptic terminal end of synapse (message)
dendrites receive electricity toward body to end of axon
sensory neurons afferent (incoming)
motor neurons efferent (outgoing)
interneurons association neurons (middle)
how many types of neuroglia in CNS? 4 types: astrocytes, oligodendrites, microglia, ependymal cells
astrocytes (guard dog) form Brain-Blood Barrier (Bouncer) determine what can leave blood and come into brain environment
oligodendrites organize neurons, create myelin sheath of neurons in brain and spinal cord
microglia smallest of 4 cells (phagocytes) clean up after everyone (mom)
ependymal cells make CSF
myelin sheath protection of electricity
how many types of neuroglia in PNS? 2 types: satelitte cells, schwann cells
satellite cells regulate environment
schwann cells make myelin sheath
unmyelinated in the brain gray matter
myelinated in the brain white matter, contains a lot of fat
Action potential nerve impulse (think of the wave @ a game) must complete cycle
4 things needed for action potential in cell semi-permeable membrane, Na+/K+ pump creates gradient, membrane becomes polarized, creates transmembrane potential ~-.70mVolts
opening sodium channel does what? negates charge and polarization becoming depolarized
polarized resting potential
depolarization standing up in the wave
depolarized action potential
repolarization sitting back down in the wave
hyperpolarization membrane is -150mVolts dropping number further from zero, makes it harder to depolarize (membrane in a coma)
resting potential transmembrane potential of a resting cell (polarized)
action potential Electrical impulse, propagates (moves) along axis to synaptic terminal (depolarized)
which part is depolarization in a sodium potassium cell gated Na+ opens flooding cell with Na+
how do you repolarize cell once Na+ channel opens? open K+ gate, shut Na+
what happens at synapses? communication occurs among neurons or between neurons and other cells, action potential is transmitted from presynaptic neuron to postsynaptic neuron
innervation neuron talking to another neuron, top neuron delivering info
presynaptic neuron top neuron
postsynaptic neuron neuron on bottom receiving message
excitatory neurotransmitter causes depolarization, promotes action potential
inhibitory neurotransmitter causes hyperpolarization, suppress action potential
effect of message depends on what? receptor
how many types of synapses are there? 2 types: cholinergic, adrenergic
cholinergic receives ach
adrenergic receives NE (norepinephrine, noradrenaline)
what happens when message reaches synaptic terminal? speaking about ach, you can put it back into cell through reuptake in axon, the ach will diffuse out, or AChE (enzyme eats all of the excess ach)
brain and spinal cord are surrounded by 3 layers of what? meninges
what are the 3 meningeal layers? dura mater (outer and inner) arachnoid, pia mater
dura mater tough and fibrous first layer of meninges (outer and inner layer)
arachnoid middle layer of meninges
pia mater innermost layer of meninges (most delicate)
6 regions of brain cerebrum, diencephalon, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellum
cerebrum largest part of the brain, controls higher mental functions, conciousness (somatic: sensing, moving, thinking)
cerebrum tissue unmyelinated (gray matter; cortical) myelinated (white matter; deep; medulla)
lobes in cerebrum frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe
frontal lobe motor control (somatic)
parietal lobe sensory control (somatic)
occipital lobe visual cortex
temporal lobe auditory complex, balance
diencephalon (2 heads) located under cerebrum and cerebellum. contains thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal gland (part of epithalamus)
hypothalamus (boss) autonomic regulation, regulates, breathing, heart, temp rate
pineal gland sleep
pituitary gland (supervisor) secondary major endocrine gland
brain stem contains pons and medulla oblongata
pons somatic and visceral motor control
medulla oblongata autonomic functions, HR BP digestion
how many pairs of cranial nerves? 12
cerebellum second largest part of brain, coordinates body movesments (walking, driving etc) posterior, if severely injured, very challenging to walk again
cerebrospinal fluid carries dissolved gases, nutrients, and wastes (different then blood so outside stuff doesn't get in.
choroid plexus of 3rd ventricle contains epindymal cells
how many pairs of spinal nerves? 31
anterior median fissure front split so you know what is the front
dorsal root from top of cortex wider, bulb area called dorsal root ganglion (filled with unipolar neurons) sensory neuron message going in
bottom root of cortex ventral root (motor neuron message going out)
how many cervical nerves? 8
how many sacral nerves? 5
thoracic and lumbar nerves? 12/5
cranial nerves 4 types, come from mid brain (sensory nerves, special sensory nerves, motor nerves, mixed)
sensory nerves sensing
special sensory nerves eyes ears etc
motor nerves muscle/ gland
mixed nerves both sensing and motor in them
olfactory nerve (I) smell (special)
optic nerve (II) vision (special)
oculomotor nerve (III) eye movement (motor)
trochlear nerve (IV) eye movement (motor)
trigeminal nerve (V) spider man face area (mixed sensory and motor)
abducens nerve (VI) eye movement (motor)
facial nerves (VII) facial (mixed )
vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) balance equilibreum, hearing
glossopharyngeal (IX) head and neck (mixed)
vagus nerve (X) parasympathetic thorax and abdomen (mixed)
accessory nerves (XI) muscles of neck/upper back (motor)
hypoglossal nerves (XII) tongue movement (motor)
nerve plexuses network of nerve fibres, control skeletal muscles of the neck/limbs
cervical plexus c1-c5 controls muscles of neck, upper chest, phrenic nerve in this plexus
brachial plexus c5-t1 whole arm and shoulder
phrenic nerve innervates diaphragm
lumbar plexus t12-l4 upper leg
sacral plexus l4-s4 lower leg
dermatomes follow specific line
reflexes simple vs complex (3 parts) generally opposes original negative feedback
withdrawal reflex placing hand on nail example: arrival of stimulus, activation of sensory neuron (dorsal root), information processing in CNS, activation of motor neuron (ventral root), response by effector
how do we know not to do same thing again (ie hand on nail) collateral
autonomic nervous system sympathetic vs parasympathetic, operates w/o conscious instruction, controls visceral effectors (internal organs), coordinates system functions (allows to be integrated)
sympathetic fight/flight, increases alertness, metabolic rate and muscular abilities
parasympathetic rest/digest reduces metabolic rate and promotes digestion to extract nutrients and energy, gi mobility
parasympathetic ganglia close to target, some cases inside organ itself, craniosacral origin
sympathetic ganglia far away from target, close to spinal cord, thoracolumbar origin
eye sympathetic: dilation of pupil, parasympathetic: construction of pupil
blood vessels sympathetic: vasoconstriction and vasodilation parasympathetic: not innervated
heart sympathetic: increase in HR/BP parasympathetic: decreases everything
airways sympathetic: increases diameter parasympathetic: decreases diameter
respiratory rate sympathetic: increases rate parasympathetic: decreases rate
adipose tissue sympathetic: lipid breakdown, fatty acid released parasympathetic: none
Created by: purplepurn