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Human Development

Human Development Theories

QuestionAnswer
What is human growth & development? The scientific way in which people change, as well as characteristics that remain fairly constant throughout life.
What are the four goals of the scientific study of Human Development? DEMP: Describe, Explain, Modify & Predict behaviour.
Physical development Growth of body, brain, weight, height. Sensory capacities. Motor skills (hand eye coordination) For example: A child with frequent ear infections may develop language more slowly than a child without this problem.
Cognitive development Change or stability in mental activites such as: learning - attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, creativity.
Psychosocial development Change or stability in emotions, personality and social relationships. Emotional development, personality + social development. Impact of family and society on the individual.
Influences on development 1 Heredity - Inborn influences, genes inheritied from parents.
Influences on development 2 Environment - non genenetic influences, external to the self. (nurture)
Influences on development 3 Maturation - Genetically influenced, age related. Sequence of physical changes & behaviour patterns. Eg. Toilet training.
Paul B Baltes life span approach of Human Development Development is life long, occurs though all domains (cognitive, etc) involves gain + loss. Modifiable + influenced by history and cultural context.
Qualitative research Non numerical data. Pt's perspective of pain. Beliefs, experiences, attitudes, behaviour, interactions.
Quantitative Research The scientific method. Generates numerical data. Or data that can be converted into numbers.
Correlational studies Explore statistical connection between disease in diff. population groups and estimated exposure in groups rather than indivduals.
Longitudinal Studies Over a long amount of time, follows the same group/person.
Cross sectional studies Takes place at one point of time.
Cross sequential studies Involves a comparison of two seperate but equivilant longitudinal studies.
Psychoanalytic Perspective Unconcious forces motivate behaviour and shape development.
Psychoanalytic theorist Sigmund Freud Stages of psychosexual development. Involving ID, EGO, SUPER EGO.
Psychoanalytic theorist Erik Erikson Stages of psycosocial development involving the eight stages of man.
Learning Perspective Development results from learning based on experience. Adaptation to the environment & experience
Learning theorist Ivan Pavlov Classical conditioning - learning by association. Stimulus
Learning theorist BF Skinner Operant conditioning - modifying behaviour involving reinforcers.
Social Learning theory Behaviour is modelled after copying, immitating others.
Social learning theorist Albert Bandura - modelling, observational learning.
Cognitive perspective Focuses on the thought processes and the behaviour that reflects those processes.
Cognitive theorists Jean Piaget Cognitive stage theory. 1. Sensor motor2. Preoperational3. Concrete Operational4. Formal operational. Also assimilation, adaptation
Schemes Organised patterns of behaviour that a person uses to think about and act in a situation
Assimilation Taking new info and incorporating it into existing structures.
Accommodation Changing ones idea to include new info with the old info.
Electic Perpsective Parts of all theories have some relevance to HD
Socio cultural theory Lev Vygotsky How socia interaction with adults can fufil a childs potential for learning. Info processing approach. Scaffolding, Zone of proximal dev.
Contextual Perspective Indivdual inseparable from the environment
Contextual theorist Urie Bronfenbrenner Environmental infulence. Individual Develops within a complex system of relationships affected by the environment.
Microsystem Bronfenbrenner Indivual interacts wtih others everyday - family, school peers, work place, neighbour hood.
Mesosystem Bronfenbrenner Interlocking between two or more microsystems. eg. religious place + family.
Exosystem Bronfebrenner Links between two or more systems not including the individual. eg. Education system to government system.
Macrosystem Bronfenbrenner Societys overall cultural patterns
Chronosystem Bronfenbrenner Effects of time on other developmental systems.
Created by: insanexrockchic