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Geography Chapter 12

The sea: how it shapes our coast

How are waves formed? Formed when wind moves across the surface of the sea
What is a fetch? The distance of open sea over which wind blows
What is swash? The water that rushes up a beach when a wave breaks
What is backwash? The water that returns back down the beach
What is a constructive wave? When the swash is greater than the backwash and material is deposited on the beach
What is a destructive wave? When the backwash is greater than the swash and material is eroded and carried away
What is hydraulic action? Physical force of the waves breaking material off the coastline
What is abrasion? Any loose material (rocks and sand) is thrown by the waves against the coast and breaks off material
What is compressed air? When waves crash against a cliff, air gets trapped in the cracks and becomes compressed. When the waves retreat, the pressure is suddenly released and shatters the rock
What is solution? Some rocks are dissolved by water
What is attrition? Stones that are carried in the water constantly hitting off each other. Over time, they become worn down, smooth and rounded. This eventually forms sand.
What is a bay? A curved area where waves have eroded the coastline
What is a headland? An area of hard rock jutting out into the sea
Give an example of a bay and a headland Dublin Bay and Bray Head
Created by: stellamcb