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MGT 342 - Exam 4

Ch. 10, 11, 12, 13

How does leadership impact on culture? (Value Base Leadership) Interpersonal Behavior: Treat people with care, be positive Personal Actions, and Expectations: Hold self to high ethical standard Fairness with Others: Teat others equitably, never be condescending Organizational Leadership: communicate ethical vision
Adaptability Culture – a strategic focus on the external environment through flexibility and change to meet customer’s needs. Encourages entrepreneurial values. (Strategic Focus)
Mission Culture concerned with servicing specific customers in the external environment, but without the need for rapid change (stability). Emphasis on a clear vision on the organization’s purpose,the achievement of goals, such as growth, profitability, or market share.
Clan Culture – focus on the involvement and participation of the organization’s members, and on rapidly changing (Flexibility) expectations from the external environment.
Bureaucratic Culture – internal focus and consistency orientation for a stable environment. (Symbols, heroes, & ceremonies reinforce values)
What are advantages and disadvantages of subcultures? A: reflect common problems, goals, and experiences that members of a team, department or other unit share. D: Occurs when sub-cultural values become too strong, and outweigh the corporate culture values due to not having overall strong culture.
Describe the forces that shape managerial ethics? Part 1 Structure: setting up ethical committees responsible for managing ethical corporate activities Disclosure Mechanisms : Whistle blowing involves employee disclosure of illegal, immoral activities. Create atmosphere where people feel comfortable disclosing
How do stakeholders influence ethics? -Stakeholders influence ethics because anyone can be a stakeholder. Some people want the organization to act in a particular way. Some will push profits at all costs while others are the opposite.
Can, and should, responsibility for ethical behavior be shifted from the organization to individuals? -First, the organization is responsible for the ethics of the organization. This means you shift a small amount toward the individuals. With those individuals you set the expectation for the ethical outcomes.
Describe the forces that shape managerial ethics? Part 2 Code of Ethics – formal statement of the company’s values concerning ethics, social responsibility. Training Programs – ensure that ethical issues are considered on daily basis
The Change Process 1-3 Ideas: concept, or procedure. Change an expression of outward ideas. Need:Mngmnt seeing a gap in actual/desired performance. Decision to adopt: moving forward with idea. mngrs, and employees come to agreement to support
The Change Process 4-5 Implementation: When orgnztin members use the new idea, technique, or behavior. Most difficult part of change. Resources: Human energy, and activity are required to bring about change. Funds set 4 innovation, or task forces for the specified change.
How does incremental change differ from radical change? Incremental change- this is planned, and happens over a period of time. Radical change – immediate change. This is often forced on you, and you don’t have a choice.
The Ambidextrous Approach to incorporate structures and management processes that are appropriate to both the creation, and the implementation of innovation.
Elements of Technological Change Part 1 (3) Switching Structure: orgz. creates organic structure when needed to introduce new idea Creative Dept: R & D, engineering, design (Idea Incubator) Venture Teams: technique used to give free rein to creativity within org.often given own location
Elements of Technological Change Part 2 (2) Corporate Entrepreneurship: attempts to develop internal spirit of employees, etc. regarding creativity Bottom-Up Approach: having idea's come from front-line workers up that chain to executives.
Describe the dual-core approach to change change compares management and technical innovation. Mngmnt core is abve tech core in hierarchy. Goal: must adopt frequent mngmnt changes, and structure diff from orgnz relying heavily on technical, and product changes.
Oganizational Development (OD) approach drive culture change focus on human/social aspects as a way to improve orgz ability to adapt, solve problems. Focus on knowledge, techniques from behavioral science for learning. involve training {Large Group Intervention, Team Building, Interdepartmental Activities}
Barriers of Change Excessive focus on cost Failure to perceive benefits Lack of coordination, and cooperation Uncertainty avoidance Fear of loss
Techniques for Implementation Establish... Sense of urgency for change Coalition to guide the change Create vision and strategy for change Find an idea that fits need Create change teams Foster Idea Champions
Decision Making - Rational Approach individual decision making systematic analysis of a problem followed by choice of implementation in a logical, step-by-step sequence: Monitor envmt, Define problem, Specify objec. , Diagnose prbm, Develop alt solution - Evaluate, Chose, and Implement
Decision Making - Bounded Rationality Approach limit to how rational mngrs can be due to time, and resource constraints. These are non-programmed decisions. Constrains, and Trade-Off's are involved to make decision. See Graph pg. 485.
Decision Making - Intuition experience, and judgement rather than sequential logic or explicit reasoning are used to make decisions I don’t know what to do, I don’t have enough time follow your intuition…you don’t make the best decisions. .
Management Science orgnzl decision making is analog to the rational to the rational approach by individual mangrs. Analysts able to identify use of mathematical equations for distance, speed, pitch, etc. This approach gives quantitative info to mngrs for review
Carnegie Model organz-level decisions involve managers, and final choice based on a coalition among those mngrs. Found necc. in coalitions. Allows ambigous dept to decide on options, and many view points to be considered. Uncertainty/Conflict-Coalition form-Serch-Dsion
Incremental Model Less focus on political/social factors described by Carnegie model. Focus on steps taken to find prblm, to resolution. Identification Phase: recognition & diagnosis Development Phase: Search, & Design Selection Phase: Judgement, analysis, barganing
Garbage Can Model deals with the pattern, or flow of multiple decisions w/i orgnz. Helps you think of the whole orgnz, and the frequent decisions being made by mngrs throughout. Problematic, unclear. Organized anarchy, stream of events, consequences for rushing
How does the contingency approach differ and add to the other four decision making models? (Row 1) PG. 505 REVIEW! (2X2 Left to right) (Problem, Solution) Cell 1: Mngmnt Science Certain/Certain Cell 2: Carnegie Model Uncertain/Certain Cell 3: Incremental Dcsion model Certain/Uncertain Cell 4: 2 & 3 Cell evolving Garbage Can Model Uncrtain/Uncertain
Garbage Can Model Consequences Solution may be proposed when problems don't exist! Choices made w/o solving problems, under high uncertainty resltin may be incorrect! Problems may persist w/o being solved, employees give up! Few problems are solved!
Garbage Can Model Steam of Events Problems, Potential Solutions, Participants (employees who come and go), Choice Opportunities (occasions when orgnz makes decision)
High velocity environment – things are happening so quickly it’s hard to keep up with
Inspiration – thinking of new things, and people don’t get caught up in the same thing
Escalating commitment – pouring money down a rat hole. You keep contributing to something that is inevitably going to fail.
Satisficing - Taking the first decision variable that solves the problem, even if it’s not the best choice.
Organized anarchy – Everyone is going different directions, but this is ok, because you’re using the garbage can model. (This is a piece of the garbage can model. Thinking through things the best you can)
What factors lead to conflict in the organization? Goal incompatibility, Differentiation, Task Interdependence, Limited Resources
What are the five sources of power? Legitimate power, Reward power, Coercive power, Expert power, Referent power
Legitimate power authority granted by the organization to the formal management position a manager holds.
Reward power stems from the ability to bestow rewards - promotion, raise, or pat on the back
Coercive power authority to punish or recommend punishment
Expert power derives from a person's greater skill or knowledge about the tasks being performed
Referent power derived from personal characteristics: people admire the manager and want to be like or identify with the manger out of respect.
How do you encourage collaboration? Create integration devises: task forces, etc.| Use confrontations/negotiation: If resolved make issue easier in the future| inter-group consultation: workplace mediation| Mbr rotation: mixing diff views|Create shared mission/superodinate goals
Vertical Sources of Power Formal Position: pwr varies w/ position Resources: Allocation of resources (buildings, pay, eqpmt) Control of Information, Network Centrality:having access to info, and ppl critical to cmpny success People: who you srrnd urself w/ (trusted executives)
Horizontal Sources of Power Interdepartmental dependency: having what ppl want Financial Resources: control over $ Centrality: what you contribute to the final product Non-subsitutability, Coping w/ uncertainty
Tactics to Increase Power Enter areas of high uncertainty to remove them, Create dependencies, Provide scarce resources, satisfy strategic contengiences
Strategic Contengincies events and activities both inside, and outside an orgnz that are essential for attaining orgnzal goals. Dept's involved normally have greater power. I.E. Legal Dept during a lawsuit
Political Tactics for Using Power Build coalitions, and expand networks (build positive relationships), Assign loyal people to key positions, Use reciprocity (do favors, get favors back), Enhance legitimacy and expertise, Make a direct appeal (if you don't ask you don't receive)
When is politics used? structural change - change or responsibilities, and tasks, management succession - hiring new executives, promotion, and resource allocation - allocating scare resourses
Created by: ekmabary92
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