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Stack #221569

Psych 100 PSU

Visual Capture the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses Continuity We perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones
Gestalt an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes connectedness Because they are uniform and linked, we perceive the two dots and the line between them as a single unit
Figure/Ground the organization of the visual field into objects (the FIGURES) that stand out from their surroundings (the GROUND) closure We fill in the gaps to create a complete, whole object. Such as circles that look like they are blocked by an illusory triangle
Grouping the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups depth perception We fill in the gaps to create a complete, whole object. Such as circles that look like they are blocked by an illusory triangle
Proximity we group nearby figures together. We see not six separate lines, but three sets of two lines binocular cues Depth cues, such retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes
Similarity we group together figures that are similar to each other. We see the triangles and circles as vertical column s of similar shapes, not horizontal rows of dissimilar shapes retinal disparity A binocular cue for perceiving depth: by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance--the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object
relative size If we assume that two objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farther away. Ex: a driver sees pedestrians as smaller thus far away, then small children look even smaller and even farther away monocular cues Depth cues, such as interposition, and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
Interposition (occlusion) If one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer relative clarity Because light from distant objects passes through more atmosphere, we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp, clear objects. In fog or snow, the car in front of you may therefore seem farther away than it is.
relative height We perceive objects high in our field of vision as farther away. Because we perceive the lower part of a figure-ground illustration as closer, we perceive it as a figure . texture gradient A gradual change from a coarse, distinct texture to a fine, in distinct texture signals increasing distance. Objects far way appear small and more densely packed
linear perspective Parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to converge with distance. The more lines converge, the greater their perceived distance. perceptual constancy Perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape an d size) even as illumination and retinal images change.
size constancy We perceive objects as having a constant size, even while our distance from them varies. Ex: perceive a car large enough to carry people, even though it looks really tiny image from far away shape constancy We perceive the form of familiar objects as constant even while our retinal images change them. Ex: door
size-distance relationship Given an objects perceived distant and the size of its image on our retinas, we instantly and unconsciously infer the object's size. color constancy Enables us to perceive the color of an object as unchanging even when its illumination changes.
Perceptual Illusions To understand how perception is organized, illusions provide good examples, by studying when our sensory system makes a mistake, we can understand how our system function normally convergence A binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object. The greater the inward strain, the close the object
Created by: johanna89