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Psych 495 Ch 09 Defs

Definitions from Chapter 09

chronic identities identities that are always with us regardless of how much the situation changes
false consciousness a subordinated group taking on the dominating groups value system, rejecting their own groups' values in the process
optimal distinctiveness theory theory that people are most likely to identify with groups that provide the most satisfying balance between personal identity and group identity
social identity the part of a person's self-concept that derives from memberships in groups that are important to the person
ingroup bias favoring members of one's own group
self-stereotyping group members view themselves in terms of the (usually positive) stereotypes they have of their groups, so that self becomes one with groups and positive view of group is reflected in positive view of the self
distributive justice the amount to which outcomes are being distributed on the expected basis that those who deserve more get more, rather than on some other, unfair basis such as ingroup favoritism
procedural justice the fairness of the process by which rewards are distributed
social identity theory theory that because groups identified with are part of social identity, your group is part of your and how people see your groups reflects on you personally
realistic conflict theory the theory that people join groups for the increased ease of maximizing gains in life in a group, and develop prejudices against competing groups
relative deprivation when people feel they have less than they did in the past, orthat they have less than people who have the resource they feel they deserve
personal (or egoistic) relative deprivation the degree to which a person feels deprived as an individual
group (or fraternal) relative deprivation the degree to which a person feels an identified group has been deprived of some benefit, whether or not the individual has been deprived
relative gratification the feeling people have more than they did in the past or than others competing for the same resource
scapegoating blaming and sometimes punishing an outgroup for the misfortunes of the ingroup, when the outgroup is innocent
relative deprivation theory theory that people become dissatisfied if they compare their current situation to past experiences or to other people in their situation, and decide they lack a resource they deserve to have
integrated threat theory the theory that prejudice derives from 3 types of percieved threat to one's ingroup: intergroup anxiety, perceptions of realistic threats, and perceptions of symbolic threats
cultural racism the assumption that the dominant culture holds the only correct societal and cultural values. According to the text, this is a synonym for everyday racism.
everyday racism the process that lets people laugh at racist jokes, as an example, without seeing themselves as racist or intentionally acting in a racist manner. According to the text, this is a synonym for cultural racism.
extraordinary racism the extreme racism typified by members of hate groups
hate group an organization whose central principals include hostility toward racial, ethnic and religious minority groups
ideological theory of scapegoating when there is a perception of group relative deprivation with no clear cause, people will search for one, and will take up an idea that fills that need to understand the deprivation
Odinism resurrection of Norse mythology in the service of racism - claims Northern European "Aryans" are a separate race that is superior to all other races and so must be kept socially pure, which is best done through separation of races.
creatorism a form of racist Deism that holds the creator set the universe in motion and established laws of nature to govern it, and people must work things out on their own within these laws.
minimal group paradigm people develop ingroup bias even when the group is based on trivial distinctions
categorization-competition hypothesis hypothesis that categorizing oneself and others into an ingroup and an outgroup is sufficient to generate ingergroup competition
ingroup favoritism effect people favor their own group to protect the groups' interests against the competition
outgroup homogeneity effect the phenomenon that outgroup members are seen as more similar to each other than they really are
self esteem hypothesis the proposal that as people identify with groups and the groups do well, the people experiences positive self-esteem because social identities interact with personal identities
vicarious retribution when ingroup members aggress against outgroup members even when they themselves have not been directly harmed by the outgroup members
Created by: Z1759032
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