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Historical Persp.

Free Association Psychodynamic technique where a patient is encouraged to freely express their thoughts wishes, experiences and mental images as they arise, in hopes of allowing subconscious content to surface into consciousness (Freud)
Ethology The scientific and objective study of animal behavior: under natural conditions, and viewing behavior as an adaptive trait
Catharsis the process of releasing and relieving oneself from strong or repressed emotions and hysteric symptoms through expression of pathogenic ideas (Freud)
Psychoanalysis Psychological theory/therapy that aims to treat mental disorders by investigating conscious and unconscious elements of the mind and bringing repressed fears and conflicts to the conscious mind through dream interpretation and free association (Freud)
Hysteria psych disorder: symptoms include conversion of psychological stress into physical symptoms. Controversial history as it was once regarded as specific to women.
parapraxias expression of the unconscious mistakes in everyday life (Slip of the tongue; Freudian slip) caused by the tension between hidden desires and awareness of social consequences of acting on them (Freud)
Dream work the process that leads anxiety (latent content) to be restructured into ideas disguised in dreams (manifest content) (Freud)
Projection Freudian defense mechanism in which one's own unacceptable feelings are repressed and attributed to someone else instead (Freud)
Fixation refers to when a person is "stuck" in one stage of psychosexual development (Freud)
Latent learning occurs without any obvious conditioning or reinforcement of behaviors, illustrating a cognitive element to learning. Proposed in 1930, after experiments done with rats showed that learning was taking place without the presence of a reward. (Tolman)
Morgan's canon In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of a higher psychical faculty, if it can be interpreted as the outcome of the exercise of one which stands lower in the psychological scale
Displacement Freudian ego defense mechanism; redirection of an impulse toward a substitute target that resembles the original in some way but that is "safer" (Freud)
Rationalization Freudian defense mechanism in which a person's true motives are denied and a false excuse or explanation is substituted for them (Freud)
reaction formation Freudian ego defense mechanism emotions and impulses which are anxiety driven (Freud)
Wish fulfillment Dreams as a compromise between desire and self-censorship; to satisfy bodily needs the id constructs images of objects that satisfy the needs. (Freud)
Transference Critical in psychoanalysis, the patient sees the analyst as some important figure of ot his childhood or past, and transfers on to him feelings and reactions which applied to his prototype.
Posthypnotic suggestion A suggestion made to the subject while in a hypnotic trance, to be acted upon at the time after emerging from the trance (Mesmer)
Operant conditioning A process that attempts to modify behavior through the use of positive and negative reinforcement. Through operant conditioning an individual makes an association between behavior and reward or consequence via the agency of free-will (Skinner)
Unconscious motivation Refers to emotions and desires that are repressed into the person's unconscious mind, but still affects the person's behavior
Thorndike's law of effect when several responses are made to the same situation, those which are accompanied by rewards are more likely to be repeated, while those accompanied by punishment are more likely to be avoided.
Phrenology the study of the structure of the skull (bumps and depression) to determine a person's character and mental capacity. (Gall)
Intelligence quotient mathematical formula that is supposed to be a measure of a person's intelligence: Ratio of mental age (MA) chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100. MA/CAx100 = IQ (Stern)
Discrimination (differentiation) Through selective reinforcement, once indiscriminate responses are conditioned to be selectively responsive to a particular stimulus, but not to other stimuli. (Pavlov)
Generalization Conditioned responses often occur to stimuli that are similar to (but not identical to) the conditioned stimulus (Pavlov)
Extinction If the conditioned stimulus is paired repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response will eventually disappear or be extinguished. (Pavlov)
Spontaneous recovery after some time the response may appear, and the conditioned stimulus will again elicit the conditioned response. (Pavlov)
Skinner box tool used for operant conditioning experiments, still being used today (Skinner)
Classical Conditioning achieved by repeating pairings of the neutral stimulus and the potent biological stimulus that elicits the desired response (Pavlov)
intervening variable neo-behaviorism term for any mechanism that intervenes between the stimuli and the response; must be operationally defined. (Tolman)
Critical period a crucial period in a person's or animal's development when certain experiences must happen for normal development to proceed. (Lorenz)
sign stimulus component of an action or object that triggers a fixed response in an animal (e.g., herring gull chick's begging response - pecking mother's beak) (Tinbergen/Lorenz)
Imprinting primitive type of learning that occurs during the early part of an animal's life. This attachment usually happens early in life, child to mother, and is critical for normal behavior as an adult (Lorenz)
industrial mealnism natural selection pressures do to manmade influences has caused color shift in some species (dark and light forms of the peppered moth)
Contingencies of reinforcement in operant conditioning, the environmental factors that reinforce behavior (Skinner)
Manifest vs Latent content (Freud) Manifest is the actual content Latent is what the dream actually means
reincforcement schedules operant conditioning: when and how often reinforcement is applied either in a fixed or interval manner - leads to direct impact on learning (Skinner)
adaptive radiation a diversification of species into separate forms that each adapt to occupy a specific environmental niche (Darwin's Finches)
Operational definition a statement of the procedures or ways in which a researcher is going to measure behaviors or qualities (Bridgeman)
Object permanence (Piaget) A developmental term that refers to a child's ability to understand that an object exists even if it's not visible. 8 Mos and younger do not have this. Criteria required to move from Sensory-Motor to Pre-Operational stage.
anthropomorphism incorrectly ascribing human characteristics to animals
Regression to the mean the phenomenon that if a variable is extreme on its first measurement , it will tend to move closer to the average on its second measurement (Galton)
Honeybee waggle dance: a figure 8 dance of the honey bee hat communicates the direction, distance and quantity of a food source to other members of the colony (con Frisch)
Genotype v phenotype Genotype is the genetic variation of DNA; Phenotype is the physical expression of those genetic variations
cognitive map (Tolman) Term for mental representation of learned relationships among stimuli. Rats paused to recall direction in maze, illustrating they had developed a mental map .
Lashley equipotentiality - describes the capacity of an intact part of the brain and how it takes over the functions of a damaged part of the brain. Homing behavior in birds; localization of brain function; "engram" of memory; serial order in behavior
Lamarck Theory of evolution by acquired characteristics "use of a structure enhances appearance in future generations; absence of use causes it to disappear" (e.g., giraffe necks)
Malthus essay on the principle of population; human pops. grow exponentially; outgrowing their means of subsistence. Pop increase ultimately must be checked by war, famine, or disease.
Peirce "Father of Pragmatism" Semiotics: Icon - resembles its referent (falling rock road sign); Index- linked by assn. (lightning and thunder); Symbol - arbitrary link (words). Modes of reasoning: Inductive, abductive and deductive reasoning.
Inductive reasoning combines facts to arrive at a theoretical conclusion
deductive reasoning uses theory to generate testable prediction
abductive reasoning process of hypothesis generation; creative aspect of science
Sechenov mind as an epiphenomenon; (not a real phenomenon) No need to study the mind directly; no independent reality; no introspection, only observation. Early model of neuroscience. Mind functions due to inhibition and excitation.
Thorndike's law of exercise Law of Exercise: a response is more strongly linked to a situation the more often it has been linked with it in the past, and depending on how strong and long-lasting the link has been in the past - stimulus-response (S-R) learning theory
Thorndike Law of Exercise and Law of Effect
Mesmer Mesmerism; post-hypnotic amnesia and suggestion; magnetic fields, hypnosis
Charcot founder of modern neurology; used hypnosis to reveal symptoms of hysteria; believed hypnotic suggestibility was symptom of mental disorder (hysteria) and it was psychological not a physical condition (Freud and Charcot)
Binet criticized Galton's view of inherited intelligence; emphasized individual differences in intelligence, attention, motivation and background; co-developer of the Binet-Simon tests of intelligence; Mental Age and Chronological Age
Spearman two factory theory of intelligence
Stern developed the intelligence quotient (IQ)
von Frisch Honey bee dance communication dance (round dance/waggle dance)
Lorenz Critical period; imprinting; fixed action pattern: innate, stereotyped response triggered by a well-defined simple stimulus; Once it is activated, the response is always performed to completion
Tinbergen Sign stimulus - the component of an action or object that triggers a fixed response in an animal (Gall chick pecking mother's nose for food); wasps using landmarks to find food and nest;
Tolman Latent learning and cognitive map
5 components to Darwin's theory of Natural Selection Variation (behavior/structure); Variation is heritable; more individuals born than leave offspring for future generations; survival of the fittest - some traits make individuals better fit to compete for resources; Changes in pop can create new species
natural selection animals that are better adapted to their environment allow for more offspring for suitable species
Key Properties of Consciousness Personal; Continuous and indivisible; constantly changing; Selective; Functional; Helps people adapt to their environment
Ethological Approach to Animal Behavior 1) Study instinctive behavior; observe animals in natural habitat without interacting 2) Study entire species across broad spectrum of species to compare and contrast interaction between genetically programmed behavior and their environment
Behaviorist Approach to Animal Behavior 1) Study learned behavior in animals by manipulating variables in controlled environment (laboratory) 2) Work with only a few particular species that are good at learning random tasks in response to changes in environment
Pavlovian conditioning Also classical conditioning; a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus that naturally produces an unconditioned response; after several trials the neutral stimulus (now a CS) will elicit the conditioned response
Operant Conditioning ( skinner) Form of learning that is determined by consequences that either reinforce or punish behaviors that can increase or decrease the probability of the presence of the behavior
5 Levels of Linguistic Analysis Phonology; Morphology; Syntax; Semantics; Pragmatics
Phonology Patterning of sounds; Study of sound systems within a language; How sounds are used to differentiate words (beet vs bit); Unit - Phoneme, smallest meaning-differentiating units
morphology principles of word formation; How sounds (phonemes) are combined to form a word; Unit - morpheme, smallest meaningful units; similar to words, but some words contain multiple morphemes (cats = 2 morphemes; cat + plural marker)
Syntax arrangement of morphemes in sentences; study of how words (morphemes) combine to form sentences; Traditional grammar: nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc... Active vs passive voice: The boy hit the ball; The ball was hit by the boy.
Semantics study of meaning; study of word meaning (lexical) and how words combine to form the meanings of sentences; Kinship systems: Words used to describe relatives (second cousin, brother-in-law)
Pragmatics Language use in social context; Choice of vocabulary and speaking style depends on the audience and circumstances
Piaget's stages of development Sensorimotor stage (0-2 years); Preoperational stage (2-7 years); Concrete operations stage(7-11 years); Formal operations stage (12-Adulthood)
sensorimotor stage (0-2 years) egocentric; basic sensory and motor activities; pre-linguistic Criterion for progressing to next stage: object permanence
Preoperational stage (2-7 years); classification by similarity; not yet able to master mental operations (mathematics); emerging use of symbols Criterion for progressing to next stage: conservation of quanitity
concrete operations stage (7-11 years); able to master conservation and some abstract concepts, but only if applied to concrete problems; reversibility, transitivity, less egocentric Criterion for progression to next stage: mastery of abstract problems
formal operations (12 - adulthood) able to master abstract and symbolic reasoning; metacognition; hypothetico-deductive reasoning
icon (peirce) resembles its referent; eg "falling rocks" road sign
index (peirce) linked by association; eg thunder and lightning
symbol (peirce) arbitrary link; eg most words
Ego Defense Mechanisms a defense mechanism is a tactic used by the ego thought to safeguard the mind against unwanted feelings and thoughts present in the conscious mind. Sometimes thought to repress unpleasant or unwanted thoughts or impulses from the conscious mind. (freud)
displacement Taking out our feelings of frustration, and our impulses out on people or objects that are safer than those people or things that are truly inspiring our aggression.
condensation using one word to describe a group of complex feelings or ideas: ie, the term crazy used to express feelings of joy or excitement as well as describe a group of mental disorders.
projection taking our own unacceptable feelings or qualities and ascribing them to other people
rationalization expressing an unacceptable thought or idea in a rational or logical manner, avoiding the true reasons for the behavior; ie, being turned down for a date and expressing a disinterest in the person anyway
reaction formation reduces anxiety by taking up the opposite feeling, impulse or behavior; eg, treating someone you dislike with extreme kindness
repression acts to keep information from the conscious mind; memories don't just disappear, they go on to affect our behaviors.
sublimation A way to vent unacceptable behaviors in a more acceptable way; people with aggression issues taking up boxing, or some other aggressive sport.
Created by: SidVicious
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