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COMM 211 - Unit Two

Study tools for Unit Two

Abstraction ladder a range of more to less abstract terms describing an event or object
Abstract language language that lacks a description of observable elements
Behavioral language language that describes observable behavior
“but” statements statements in which the word ‘but’ cancels out the expression that preceded it
Convergence the process of adapting one’s speech style to match that of others with whom the communicator wants to identify
Divergence speaking mannerisms that emphasize a communicator’s differences from others
Emotive language language that conveys the sender’s attitude rather than simply offers an objective description
Equivocal language ambiguous language that has two or more equally plausible meanings
High-context cultures cultures that avoid direct use of language, relying on the context of a message to convey meaning
“I” language a statement that describes the speaker’s reaction to another person’s behavior
“it” statements statements that replaces the personal pronoun “I” with the less immediate word “it,” often reducing the speaker’s acceptance of responsibility for the statement
Linguistic relativism worldview of a culture is shaped and reflected by the language its members speak
Low-context cultures cultures that use language primarily to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas as clearly and logically as possible
Powerless speech mannerisms ways of speaking that may reduce perceptions of a communicator’s power
Pragmatic rules linguistic rules that help communicators understand how messages may be used and interpreted in a given context
Relative words words that gain their meaning by comparison
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis theory of linguistic determinism in which language shapes a culture’s perceived reality. Hopi language: no distinction between nouns and verbs; entire world is constantly in process.
Semantic rules rules that govern the meaning of language, as opposed to its structure
Static evaluation the tendency to view people or relationships as unchanging
Syntactic rules rules that govern the ways symbols can be arranged, as opposed to the meanings of those symbols
“we” language statement that implies the that the issue is the concern and responsibility of both the speaker and receiver of a message
“you” language a statement that expresses or implies a judgment of the other person
Accenting nonverbal behaviors that emphasize part of a verbal message
Adaptors unconscious bodily movements in response to the environment
Body orientation type of nonverbal communication characterized by the degree to which we face forward or away from someone
Chronemics the study of how humans use and structure time
Complementing nonverbal behavior that reinforces a verbal message
Contradicting nonverbal behavior that is inconsistent with a verbal message
Disfluencies nonlinguistic verbalizations, for example, um, er, ah
Emblems deliberate nonverbal behaviors with precise meanings, known to virtually all members of a cultural group
Gestures motions of the body, usually hands or arms, that have communicative value
Haptics study of touching
Illustrators nonverbal behaviors that accompany and support verbal messages
Intimate distance one of Hall’s four distance zones, skin contact to 18 inches
Kinesics the study of body positions and motion
Leakage nonverbal behaviors that reveal information a communicator does not disclose verbally
Manipulators self-touching behaviors; often a sign of discomfort, ex. Fiddling with hands
Microexpression brief facial expression
Mixed message situation in which a person’s words are incongruent with his/her nonverbal behavior
Monochronic behavior emphasizing punctuality, schedules, and completing one task at a time
Nonverbal communication messages expressed by other than linguistic means
Paralanguage nonlinguistic means of vocal expression: rate, pitch, tone, etc.
Personal distance one of Hall’s four distance zones, 18 inches to 4 feet
Polychronic flexible schedules, multiple tasks at the same time
Posture the way in which individuals carry themselves—erect, slumping, etc.
Proxemics the study of how people and animals use space
Public distance one of Hall’s four distance zones, extending outward from 12 feet
Regulating one function of nonverbal communication, in which nonverbal cues control the flow of verbal communication among individuals
Repeating nonverbal behaviors that duplicate the content of a verbal message
Social distance one of Hall’s distance zones, ranging from 4-12 feet
Substituting nonverbal behavior that takes the place of a verbal message
Territory a stationary area claimed by an individual
Advising response helping by offering a solution
Ambushing a style in which the receiver listens carefully in order to gather information to use in an attack on the speaker
Analyzing response a helping style in which the listener offers an interpretation of a speaker’s message
Attending the process of filtering out some messages and focusing on others
Counterfeit questions questions that disguise the speaker’s true motives, which do not include a genuine desire to understand the other person
Defensive listening a response style in which the receiver perceives the speaker’s comments as an attack
Hearing the physiological dimensions of listening
Insensitive listening failure to recognize the thoughts or feelings that are not directly expressed by a speaker; instead, accepting the speaker’s words at face value
Insulated listening a style in which the receiver ignores undesirable information
Judging response a reaction in which the receiver evaluates the sender’s message either favorably or unfavorably
Listening process that consists of hearing, attending, understanding, responding, and remembering an aural message
Mindful listening giving careful and thoughtful attention and responses to the messages we receive
Mindless listening reacting to others’ messages automatically and routinely, without much mental investment
Paraphrasing restating a speaker’s thoughts and/or feelings in the listener’s own words
Prompting using silences and brief statements of encouragement to draw out a speaker
Pseudolistening an imitation of true listening in which the receiver’s mind is elsewhere
Questioning a style of helping in which the receiver seeks additional information from the sender. Some questioning responses are really disguised advice.
Remembering ability to recall information
Responding giving observable feedback to the speaker
Selective listening a listening style in which the receiver responds only to messages that interest him or her
Sincere questions questions that are aimed at soliciting information that enable the asker to understand the other person
Stage-hogging a listening style in which the receiver is more concerned with making his or her own point than in understanding the speaker
Supportive response response that demonstrates solidarity with a speaker’s situation
Understanding occurs when sense is made of a message
Created by: 521050297
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