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Urinary System

Radiography Urinary

QuestionAnswer
What is the Urinary system composed of? Two kidneys, two ureters, urinary bladder and urethra,
What are the functions of the kidneys? Removal of waste products from the blood, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, and secreting substances that affect blood pressure and other important body functions.
How much urine do kidneys typically excrete? 1 to 2 liters of urine per day.
What is the excretory system composed of? Urine draining branches called calyces and an expanded portion called the renal pelvis. Two long tubes called ureters, the urinary bladder and the urethra.
What are suprarenal glands? Ductless endocrine glands that have no functional relationship but are included because of their relationship to the kidneys.
What substances do the suprarenal glands secrete? Epinephrine and cortical hormones.
What are the kidneys? Two bean shaped bodies that are both convex and concave. They are approx 4.5" long, 2-3" wide and 1.25" thick. The left is commonly higher and longer/narrower than the right.
Where are the kidneys located in the body? Retroperitoneal or behind the peritoneum.
What plane does each kidney lie in? Each kidney lies in an oblique plane and it rotated 30 degrees anteriorly toward the aorta. RPO and LPO will put the kidney parallel to the IR.
What is the outer cover of the kidney? The renal capsule
What is on the concave border of each kidney? The concave medial border of the kidney has a longitudinal slit, or hilum for transmission of blood, lymphatic vessels, nerves and ureters.
What is the Renal Sinus? A fat filled space surrounding the renal pelvis and vessels?
What is the renal Medulla? The renal medulla is composed of collecting tubules that give it a striated appearance. Consists of 8 - 15 Cone shaped pyramids.
What is the essential part of the kidney? The essential microscopic components are the parenchyma of the kidney are called nephrons. Each kidney contains approx. 1 million of these structures.
What is a nephron composed of? The nephron is composed of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule.
What is a ureter? Each ureter is 10-12 inches long and descend behind the peritoneum and in front of the psoas muscle and the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. They convey urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder.
What is the urinary bladder? The urinary bladder is a musculomembranous sac that serves as a reservior for urine. The bladder is situated posterior/superior to the symphisis pubis.
How much urine can an adult bladder typically hold? 500ml, but the urge is felt at 250ml
What is the urethra? The urethra conveys urine out of the body and is a narrow musculomembranous tube with a sphincter type of muscle at the neck of the bladder.
What is the difference between a female and male urethra? A male urethra extends 7 to 8" while a female urethra is 1.5 inches.
What is the prostate? A small glandular body surrounding the proximal part of the male urethra.
What is a calculus? Abormal concentration of mineral salts, often called a stone.
What is carcinoma? Malignant new growth composed of epithelial cells.
Bladder Carcinoma? Carcinoma located within the bladder.
Renal Cell Carcinoma? Carcinoma located within the kidney
Duplicate Collection System Congenital abnormality with two renal pelves or ureters from the same kidney.
Horseshoe Kidney Fusion of the kidneys, usually the lower poles
Pelvic Kidney Kidney that fails to ascend and remains in the pelvis.
Cystitis Inflammation of the bladder
Fistula Abnormal connection between two internal organs or between an organ and the body surface.
Glomerulonephritis Inflammation of the capillary loops in the glomeruli of the kidneY
Hyrdronephrosis Distention of the renal pelvis and calyces with urine
Nephroptosis Excessive interior displacement of the kidneys or kidney prolapse.
Polycystic Kidney Massive enlargement of the kidneys with the formation of many cysts.
Pyelonnephritis Inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis.
Ureterocele Ballooning of the lower end of the ureter into the bladder.
Created by: 100000516692993