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Psych 100 @ OSU - Personality (p.577-617)

traits relatively enduring predispositions that influence our behavior across many situations
nomothetic approach approach to personality that focuses on identifying general laws that govern the behavior of all individuals
idiographic approach approach to personality that focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within a person
molecular genetic studies investigations that allow researchers to pinpoint genes associated with specific personality traits
somatogeneic physiologically caused
catharsis feeling of relief following a dramatic outpouring of emotion
psychogenic psychologically caused
psychic determinism that assumption that all psychological events have a cause
id reservoir of our most primitive impulses
pleasure principle tendency of the id to strive for immediate gratification
ego psyche's executive and principal decision maker
reality principle tendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet
superego our sense of morality
defense mechanisms unconscious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety
reaction-formation transformation of an anxiety-provoking into its opposite
projection unconscious attribution of our negative characteristics to others
displacement directing an impulse from a socially unacceptable target onto a safer and more socially acceptable target
rationalization providing a reasonable sounding explanation for unreasonable behaviors or fialures
repression motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories or impulses
denial motivated forgetting of distressing external experiences
regression the act of returning psychologically to a younger and and typically simpler and safer age
intellectualization avoiding emotions associated with anxiety-provoking experiences by focusing on abstract and impersonal thoughts
identification with the aggressor process of adopting the characteristics of individuals we find threatening
sublimation transformation of a socially unacceptable impulse into an admired goal. (Easy way to remember: You could want to be a heroine addict like Bradley Noell from Sublime through sublimation.)
erogenous zone sexually arousing zone of the body
oral stage psychosexual stages that focuses on the mouth
anal stage psychosexual stage that focuses on toilet training
phallic stage psychosexual stage that focuses on the genitals
Oedipus complex conflict during phallic stage in which boys supposedly love their mothers romantically and want to eliminate their fathers as rivals
Electra complex conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals
penis evny supposed desire of girls to posses a penis
latency stage psychosexual stage in which sexual impulses are submerged into the unconscious
genital stage psychsexual stage in which sexual impulses awaken and typically begin to mature into romantic attraction toward others
neo-freudian theories theories derived from freud's model, but that place less emphasis on sexuality as a driving force in personality and were more optimistic regarding the prospects for long-term personality growth
style of life according to Adler, each person's distinctive way of achieving superiority
inferiority complex feelings of low self-esteem that can lead to overcompensation for such feelings
collective unconscious according to Jung, our shared storehouse of memories that ancestors have passed down to us across generations
archetypes cross-culturally universal emotional symbols
object relations theorists followers of Freud who emphasized mental representations of others
social learning theorists theorists who emphasized thinking as a cause of personality
locus of control extent to which people believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside their control
self-actualization drive to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent
conditions of worth according to Rogers, expectations we place on ourselves for appropriate/inappropriate behavior
incongruence inconsistency between our personalities and innate dispositons
peak experiences transcendent moments of intense excitement and tranquility marked by a profound sense of connection to the world
factor analysis statistical technique that analyzes the correlations among responses on personality inventories and other measures
Big Five five traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analyses of personality measures
lexical approach approach to personality proposing that the most crucial features of personality are embedded in our language
structured personality tests paper-and-pencil tests consisting of questions that respondents answer in one of a few fixed ways
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) widely used structured test designed to assess symptoms of mental disorders
empirical method of test construction approach to building tests in which researchers begin with two or more criterion groups and examine which items best distinguish them
face validity extent to which respondents can tell what the items are measuring
rational/theorietical method of test construction approach to building tests that requires test developers to begin with a clear cut conceptualization of a trait and then write items to assess that conceptualization
projective tests tests consisting of ambiguous stimuli that examinees must interpret or make sense of
projective hypothesis hypothesis that in the process of interpreting ambiguous stimuli, examinees project aspects of their personality onto the stimulus
Rorschach Inkblot Test projective test consisting of ten symmetrical inkblots
incremental validity extent to which a test contributes information beyond other, more easily collected, measures.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) projective test require examinees to tell a story in response to ambiguous pictures
graphology psychological interpretation of handwriting
P.T. Barnum effect tendency of people to accept high base rate descriptions as accurate
Created by: neill89
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