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aneurysm a spindle shaped or sac-like bulging of the wall of a vein or artery, due to weakening of the wall by disease or an abnormality present at birth
anoxia no oxygen condition frequently occurs when the blood supply to a part of the body s completely cut off. results in death of the affected tissue. example: a specific area of the heart muscle may die when the blood supply has been blocked by a clot in the a
aortic insufficiency an improper closing of the valve between the aorta and the lower left chamber of the heart admitting a backflow of blood
aorta the main trunk artery which receives blood from the lower left chamber of the heart. it originates from the left ventricle, arches up over the heart like a cane handle, & passes down through the chest and abdomen in front of the spine.
angina pectoris means pain in chest a condition in which the heart muscle receives an insufficient blood supply causing chest pains and often left arm and shoulders results from artherosclerosis
aortic stenosis an improper closing of the valve opening between the lower left chamber of the heart and the aorta. narrowing may occur at the valve itself or slightly above or below the valve. may be results of scarring tissue forming after rheumatic fever infection.
aortic valve valve at the junction of the aorta and the lower left chamber of the heart. formed by 3 cup shaped membranes called semilunar valves it allows the blood to flow from the heart into the artery and prevents a backflow
apex the blunt rounded end of the heart directed downward, forward, and to the left
arrhythmia an abnormal rhythm of the heart
arterial blood oxygenated blood. blood is oxygenated in the lungs to the left side of the heart via the pulmonary veins. it is then pumped by the left side of the heart into the arteries which carry it to all parts of the body
arterioles the smallest arterial vessels(0.2mm or 1/125 in. n diameter) resulting from repeated branching of the arteries. they conduct blood from the arteries to the capillaries.
arteriosclerosis commonly called hardening of the arteries. this is a generic term which includes a variety of conditions which cause the artery walls to become thick and hard and lose elacticity
artery blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart to the various parts of the body. they usually carry oxygenated blood except for the pulmonary artery which carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation.
atrial septum sometimes called interatrial septum or inter-auricular septum. muscular wall dividing left & right chambers of the heart which are called atria
atrio-ventricular node aka bundle of his, auriculo-ventricular bundle or a-v bundle. a bundle of muscle fibers running from small mass of muscular fibers (a-v nodes) between the upper chambers of the heart down to the lower chambers it is the direct muscular connection between
atrio-ventricular node small mass of special muscles fibers at the base of the wall between the 2 upper chambers of the heart. it forms the beginning of the bundle of his which is the only known direct muscular connection between the upper n lower heart chambers. electrical imp
atrio-ventricular valves` the 2 valves, 1 on each side of the heart, between the upper n lower chamber. the one right side of the heart is the tricuspid valve ant the 1 to the left side is the mitral valve
atrium capacity 57cc 1 of the 2 upper chambers of the heart also called auricle although this is generally used to describe only the very tip of the atrium. the right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body. the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.
auricle the upper chamber in each side of the heart also called the atrium
auricular septum sometimes called inter auricular septum or inter-atrial septum muscular wall dividing left & right upper chambers of the heart called the atria
auscultation the act of listening to sounds within the body as with a stethoscope
biscuspid valve called mitral valve. a valve of 2 cusps or triangular segments located between the upper and lower chambers in the left side of the heart
blood pressure pressure of the blood in the arteries(1) systolic: pressure when the muscle is contracted(2) diastolic: when the heart muscle is relaxed between beats. 120/80
bradycardia abnormally slow heart rate: below 60 bpm
cardiac cycle 1 total heartbeat (in man normally occupies 0.85 sec)
cardiac output the amount of blood pumped by the hear per min.
cardiovascular pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
carotid sinus a slight dilation at the point where the internal carotid artery branches from the commonly carotid artery. carotid arteries supply blood to the neck.
chordae tendinae fibrous cord which serve as guy ropes to hold the valves between the upper and lower chambers of the heart secure when forced closed by pressure of blood in the lower chambers. they stretched from the cusp of the valves to muscles called papillary muscles
commissurotomy an operation to widen the opening in a heart valve which has become narrowed by scar tissue. the individual flap of the valve are cut or spread apart along the natural line of their closure.performed n cases of rheumatic heat disease
congestive heart failure when the heart is unable to adequately pump out all the blood that returns to it there is a backing up of blood in the veins leading to the heart. a congestion or accumulation of fluid in various parts of the body may result from the hearts failure
coronary arteries 2 ateries arising from the aorta, arching down over the top of the heart and conduction blood to the heart muscle
coronary occlusion an obstruction in a branch of the coronary arteries which hinders the flow of blood to some part of the heart muscle. this part of the heart muscle then dies because of lack of blood supply. sometimes called a coronary heart attack or simple heart attack
coronary thrombosis formation of a clot in a branch of the arteries which conduct blood to the heart muscle. a form of coronary occlusion
cor pulmonale heart disease resulting from disease of the lungs or blood vessels in the lungs. this is due to resistance to the passage of blood through the lungs
cyanosis blueness of the skin caused by insufficient oxygen in the. oxygen is carried in the blood by hemoglobin, which is bright red when saturated with oxygen. when hemoglobin is not carrying o2 it is purple n called reduced hemoglobin.
decompensation inability of the hear to maintain adequate circulation, usually resulting in a waterlogging of tissues. a person whose heart is failing to maintain normal circulation is said to be decompensated
defibrillator any agent or measure such as an electric shock which stops an incoordinate contraction of the heart muscle and restores a normal heartbeat
dextrocardia 2 different types of congenital phenomena are often described as dextorcardia. the first condition in which the heart is slowly rotated and lies almost entirely to the right side of the chest. the 2nd is a condition in which there is a complete transition
diastole in each heartbeat the period of relaxation of the heart. auricular diastole is the period of relaxation of the atria. ventricular diastole is the period of relaxation of the ventricles
digitalis a drug prepared from the leaves of the foxglove plant which strengthens the contraction of the heart muscle slows the rate of contraction of the heart & by improving the efficiency of the heart, may eliminate the build up of fluids in the body tissues.
dilation a stretching or enlargement of the heart or blood vessels beyond the norm
dyspnea difficult or labored breathing
edema swelling due to abnormally large amounts of fluid in the tissues of the body
electric cardiac pacemaker an electric device that can control the beating of the heart by a rhythmic or electrical impulses
electrocardiogram often referred to as ekg or ecg.
electrolyte any substance which, in solution is capable of conducting electricity by means of its atoms or group of atoms and in the process is broken down into positively and negatively charged particles. examples are sodium and potassium
embolism the blocking of the blood vessel by a clot or other substance carried in the blood stream
endocarditis inflammation of the inner lining of the heart usually associated with acute rheumatic fevers or some infectious agents
endocardium a thin smooth membrane forming the inner surface of the heart
epicardium the outer layer of the heart wall also called the visceral pericardium
epinephrine 1 of the secretions of two small glands, called the adrenal glands located just above the kidneys. the secretion is also called adrenaline and sometimes prepared synthetically constricts the small blood vessels (arterioles) increases the rate of the heart
erythrocyte red blood sites
essential hypertension sometimes called primary hypertension, and commonly known as high blood pressure. an elevated blood pressure not caused by kidney or other evident disease
etiology the sum of knowledge about the causes of a disease
extracorporeal circulation the circulation of the blood outside the body as by a mechanical pump-oxygenator. this is often done while surgery is being done in the heart
extrasystole a contraction of the heart which occurs prematurely and interrupts the normal rhythm
femoral artery main blood vessel supplying blood to the leg
fibrillation uncoordinated contractions of the heart muscle occurring when the individual muscle fibers take up independent irregular contractions
gallop rhythm an extra clearly heard sound which when the heart rate is fast resembles a horse's gallop. it may or may not be significant
heart block interference with the conduction of the electrical impulses of the heart which can be either partial or complete. This can result in dissociation of the rhythms of the upper and lower heart chambers
heart-lung machine a machine through which the blood stream is diverted for pumping and oxygenation while the heart is opened for surgery
hemodynamics the study of the flow of blood and forces involved
hemorrhage loss of blood from a blood vessel. In extreme hemorrhage blood escapes from the body. in internal hemorrhage blood passes into tissues surrounding the ruptured blood vessel.
heparin a chemical substance which tends to prevent blood from clotting. sometimes used in cases of an existing clot in an artery or vein to prevent enlargement of the clot or the formation of new clots. an anticoagulant
His, Wilhelm German anatomist who discovered bundle of muscle fibers running from the upper to lower chambers of the heart. these fibers are known as the bundle of his
hypertension commonly called high blood pressure an unstable or persistent elevation of blood pressure above the normal range, which may eventually lead to increased heart size and kidney damage
hypertrophy the enlargement of a tissue or organ due to increase in size of its constituent cells. this may result from a demand of increased work
hypotension commonly called low blood pressure. blood pressure below the normal range. most commonly used to describe an acute fall in blood pressure, as occurs in shock
hypoxia less than normal content of oxygen in the organs and tissues of the body. at very high altitudes a healthy person suffers from hypoxia because of insufficient oxygen in the air that is breathed
incompetent valve any valve which does not close tight and leaks blood back in the wrong direction. also called valvular insufficiency
infarct an area of a tissue which is damaged or dies as a result of not receiving a sufficient blood supply. frequently used in the phrase "myocardial infarct" referring to an area of the heart muscle damaged or killed by an insufficient flow of blood through the
inter-atrial septum sometimes called auricular septum or interauricular septum or atrial septum. muscular wall dividing left and right upper chambers of the heart which are called atria
inter-ventricular septum sometimes called ventricular septum. muscular wall thinner at the top, dividing the left and right lower chambers of the heart which are called ventricles
ischemia a local, usually temporary deficiency of blood in some part of the body, often caused by a constriction or an obstruction in the blood vessel supplying that part
Created by: t4achange