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# Chapter 8

### Work and Machines

TermDefinition
Work The transfer of energy to an object by using a force that causes the object to move in the direction of the force.
Joule The unit used to express energy: equivalent to the amount of work done by a force of 1N acting through a distance of 1m in the direction of the force (symbol, J).
Power The rate at which work is done or energy is transformed.
Watt The unit used to express power; equivalent to joules per second (symbol, W).
Machine A device that helps do work by either overcoming a force or changing the direction of the applied force.
Work input The work done on a machine; the product of the input force and the distance through which the force is exerted.
Work output The work done by a machine; the product of the output force and the distance through which the force is exerted.
Mechanical advantage A number that tells how many times a machine multiplies force.
Mechanical efficiency A quantity, usually expressed as a percentage, that measures the ratio of work output to work input; it can be calculated by dividing work output by work input.
Lever A type of simple machine that consists of a bar that pivots at a fixed point called a fulcrum.
Pulley A type of simple machine that consists of a wheel over which a rope, chain, or wires passes.
Wheel and axle A type of simple machine consisting of two circular objects of different sizes; the wheel is the larger of the two circular objects.
Inclined plane A type of simple machine that is a straight, slanted surface, which facilitates the raising of loads; a ramp.
Wedge A type of simple machine that is made up of two inclined planes that moves; often used for cutting.
Screw A type of simple machine that consists of an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder.
Compound machines A machine made of more than one simple machine.
Created by: Kenmore Science