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Diagnostic Testing

Chapter 50 Medical Assisting

Diagnostic Radiology Consists of screenings and Clinical Diagnosis
Radiologist Doctor who interprets films and preforms invasive procedures.
Radiologic Technologists Preform non invasive procedures, i.e. normal x-rays
Contrast Medium Makes internal organs denser. Produces a clearer image.
Types Of Contrast Medium Gases, Heavy Metal Salts, Paramagnetic compounds, Iodine compounds.
Invasive Procedures A testing device is inserted into a blood vessel. Requires Aseptic technique. Pts are closely monitored.
Noninvasive Procedure View internal structures, uses conventional x-ray machine or specialized instruments.
What type of waves does an x-ray use? Electromagnetic
Medical Assistants role in Diagnostic Radiology Based on scope of practice in state, provide prep and post op instructions, patient education
Pre-procedure care Schedule appts, provide prep instructions, explain procedure, ask pertinent questions (medication history, possibility of pregnancy)
Care during and after the procedure prepare and assist the pt, assist the RT or radiologist.
Verify Insurance Prior to testing, obtain necessary referrals, be sure to schedule at in network facility.
How is contrast medium administered? By mouth, IV, or enema.
Adverse Effects of contrast medium Ranges from mild to severe, Localized to systemic, check for allergy to iodine or shellfish. Monitor pt for signs of adverse reaction to contrast medium.
Fluoroscopy X-ray cause certain chemicals to emit visible light, allows viewing movement of an organ or contrast through organs.
Hysterosalpingography Examination of uterus and fallopian tubes by fluoroscopy. Used to evaluate shape, structure, and patency of uterus and fallopian tubes.
Angiography Invasive procedure using a contrast medium to assess arteries and veins, Commonly used for CAD.
Arthography Produces and image during movement. Used to diagnose abnormalities or injuries in cartilage, tendons, or ligaments.
Barium Enema Contrast media can be single contrast (barium) or double contrast (barium and air). Diagnose and evaluate the colon or rectum. Pt compliance important.
Barium Swallow Contrast medium is also barium. Diagnose and evaluate the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and small intestine. Pt compliance important.
Cholecystography Detect gallstones or abnormalities of the gallbladder.
Cholangiography Contrast injected into the common bile duct. Evaluates the function of the bile duct.
Conventional Tomography Uses computerized camera that moves back and forth over the patient. One view per arc over patient. Less Detailed.
Computer Tomography(CT) Camera rotates completely around the patient. Cross sectional view from each rotation. More detailed.
Angiocardiography Contrast medium used. Images of medium flowed through the heart, lungs, and major vessels.
Coronary arteriography Contrast medium used. Vessels on the outside of the heart. Also called coronary arteries.
Intravenous pyelography (IVP) Injected into a vein. Show contrast moving through kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
Retrograde pyelography Contrast medium injected through a urethral catheter. Similar to an IVP.
KUB Radiography X-ray of the abdomen. Assesses size, shape, and position of urinary organs.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) With or without contrast medium. Examines internal structures and soft tissues.
Mammography X-ray exam of internal breast tissues. Specially trained radiologic techs.
Mammotest Biopsy Procedure Stereotactic breast biopsy. Computer Guided procedure.
Myelograpghy Fluoroscopy used to evaluate spinal abnormalities. Preformed less frequently bc of new technology.
Nuclear medicine Use of radionuclides to evaluate internal organs. Types include: PET, SPECT, and MUGA scan
Ultrasound Directs high-frequency sound waves to produce an echo of the internal organ. Echoes are converted to images.
Radiation Therapy used to treat cancer by preventing cellular reproduction.
Teletherapy External beam radiotherapy. Allows deep penetration of tissues. Stereotactic radiosurgery means precise delivery of radiation.
Brachytherapy Places temporary radioactive implants close to or directly into a cancerous tissue. Requires special precautions for radiation safety.
Patient exposure reduced by what? Advances in technology and assessment of benefit-to-risk ratio.
NCRP Goals Prevent serious damage from radiation by limiting radiation dose levels. Reduce risk of cancer and genetic effects.
Personal Safety and patient safety Wear radiation exposure badge, Make sure equipment is functioning properly. Use lead shields as appropriate.
Storing and filing x-rays Keep fresh film on hand, keep at proper temperature, prevent pressure marks, and keep expiration dates visible, use oldest film first, open all packages or boxes in darkroom, do not store near acid or ammonia vapors.
Telemedicine Technology Rapid video, computer based communications, uses include: viewing medical image, consults, and transmission of data electronically.
Digital imaging Advantages include: Better image quality, faster results, and decreased radiation exposure.
DICOM Standard for handling, storing, and transmitting information in medical imaging.
PAC Digital storage area for DICOM.
Advances in radiology 3D/4D ultrasound