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AP Psych Ch.18 Vocab

Social Psychology - AP Psychology, Chapter 18

Social psychology The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Attribution theory We explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Fundamental attribution error The tendency of viewers to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition
Foot in the door phenomenon The tendency for people to agree to a larger request after agreeing to a smaller request
Cognitive dissonance theory The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent (ex: after no weapons of mass destruction were found in Iraq, people believed the main reason for the invasion was to liberate people/promote democracy)
Conformity Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Obedience Following explicit or implied instructions
Normative social influence Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval
Informational social influence Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept other people's opinions about reality
Social facilitation The tendency to have stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others (we perform better for a crowd)
Social loafing The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward a common goal than when held individually accountable
Deindividualization The loss of self-awareness that occurs in situations that foster anonymity and arousal
Group polarization The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
Groupthink The mode of thinking that occurs when desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
Prejudice An unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
Discrimination Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
Stereotype A generalized belief about a group of people
Ingroup/Outgroup -Ingroup - "us," people with whom one shares a common identity -Outgroup - "them," those perceived as different/apart from one's ingroup
Scapegoat theory The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
Just-world phenomenon The tendency of people to believe that the world is just and people get what they deserve
Aggression Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
Frustration-aggression principle The principle that frustration (the blocking of an attempt to achieve a goal) creates anger, which can generate agression
Conflict A perceived incompatibility of goals, actions, or ideas
Social traps Situations in which we harm our collective well-beings by pursuing our personal interests
Mere exposure effect Repeated exposure to stimuli increases our liking of them
Altruism Unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Bystander effect The tendency to be less likely to offer help if other bystanders are present
Social exchange theory The theory that our behavior is an exchange process designed to maximize benefits and minimize costs (donating blood may cost time and cause discomfort, but you get good feelings and free food!)
Reciprocity norm The expectation that people will help those who have helped them
Social responsibility norm The expectation that people will help those dependent on them
Superordinate goals Shared goals that override differences among people and require cooperation
GRIT Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension Reduction - a proposed strategy designed to decrease international tensions, involves announcing intent to be conciliatory and following through.
Created by: emilyjane1221
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