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a & p

----- is frequent need to void during the night whereas ------- is incontinence while sleep nocturia; enuresis
which of the following is/are considered to be parts of the nephron? nephron, renal tubules, peritubular capillaries
the functional unit of the kidney is bowmans capsule
the movement of water, waste and useful substances from the glomerulus to Bowmans capsule is described as glomerular filtration
this movement is made by the principle of filtration
in the healthy kidney, which of the following substances are found in the renal tubule after tubular reabsorption water and waste
in the healthy kidney which of the following substances are found in bowmans capsules after glomerular filtration water, waste, and some useful substances
which of the following is another term fo a "bladder suspension and fixation" Marshall-Marchetti
in renal failure the kidney no longer filters the blood and waste products are then excreted through other areas such as the----- we find symptoms of ------- skin, uremic frost
the danger of conditions such as severe hypotension, nephrosclerosis, chronic glomerulonephritis, is that they can all lead to renal failure
the movement of water and useful materials from the convoluted tubule back to the peritubular capillary is termed tubular reabsorption
the cluster of capillaries which is surrounded by bowmans capsule is termed glomerulus
the thinned walled tubule which collects water waste from this cluster it bowmans capsule
anatomically the nephron bulb (glomerulus, bowmans capsule) is part of the cortex
anatomically the collecting tubule is part of the medulla
which of the following structures carries "urine" material and eventually drains into the renal pelvis bowmans capsule
which of the following structures carries blood and will ultimately drain into the renal vein glomerulus
through what process does necessary fluid return to circulation tubular reabsorption
through what process do toxic waste materials and excess water leave circulation glomerular filtration
which of the following indicates the minimum urine output for a healthy kidney per day 1500ml
through which of the following routes is/are water/waste also expelled from the body stool, skin, respiration
which of the following are abnormal constituents of urine albumin, glucose
which of the following substances would be found in the blood carried by the afferent arteriole waste (urea), excess water, blood cells
which of the following substances would be found in the blood carried by the efferent arteriole blood cells
which of the following is necessary for glomerular filtration to occur adequate blood pressure
which of the following hormones play a major role in regulation of fluid balance by the kidney ADH
if sodium (salt) retention is increased it may be assumed that water retention will be decreased
the "void reflex" of a normal bladder will be stimulated when amount of urine in the bladder reaches 300-350 ml
because of its ability to expand, the normal bladder may hold up to or more than 800ml
which of the following are characteristics of the ureters peristaltic, approximately 10" long, have valves
in which of the following regions/cavities is the bladder found pelvic cavity
in which of the following cavities/regions are the kidneys found R/L upper quadrants R/L hypochondriac, region, pelvic cavity
the renal tubule may be subdivided into proximal/distal tubule and loop of henle
which of the following structures play a major role in glomerular filtration bowmans capsule and glomerulus
which of the following structures play a major role in tubular reabsorption renal tubule and peritubular capillary
increased amount of nitrogenous salts and urea in the blood is termed azotemia
which of the following terms describes involuntary urination during coughing and/or sneezing and/or laughing stress incontinence
which of the following terms describes a bladder that has lost its sensation and contractility because of nerve damage from injury or prolonged catheterization neurogenic bladder
which of the following procedures is done for the disorder marshall-marchetti and bladder suspension
which of the following disorders involve a back-up of fluid (urine)into the renal pelvis hydronephrosis
which of the following terms describes a kidney that tends to be displaced dowmwards nephroptosis
which of the following is a non-infectious inflammation of the glomerulus and nephron leading to their degeneration, fluid retention and lack of proper filtration glomerulonephritis
which of the following is an infectious inflammation of the glomerulus and nephron caused by a strep bacteria glomerulonephitis
ureteral colic would be a symptom of which of the following conditions ureteral calculi
which of the following terms describes a total suppression or lack of urine due to renal failure or blockage of the urinary tract anuria
which of the following terms describes an accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces, commonly caused by renal disease edema
which of the following terms describes a condition in which the urethra of the male becomes obstructed, due to the enlargement of the gland which encircles it begnign prostatic hypertrophy
which of the following is a procedure done to correct the benign prostatic hypertrophy trans urethral resection
which of the following terms describe the hardening and narrowing of the glomerulus and arteriole, leading to their degeneration nephrosclerosis
list the following veins in order 1. renal artery 2. afferent arteriole 3. glomerulus 4.peritubular capillary 5. renal vein
list the following in the correct sequence 1. bowmans capsule 2 convoluted tubule 3. collecting tubes 4. renal pelvis 5. ureter
which of the following are removed from the blood to the convoluted tubule during tubular secretion hydrogen, creatinine, and drugs
which of the following procedures is often performed for nephrolithiasis lithotrispy
which of the following treatments for renal failure provide cleansing of the blood of metabolic wastes through a machine with catheters in patient veins hemodialysis
which of the following treatments for renal failure provide cleansing of the blood of metabolic waste through a tube inserted into the abdominal cavity with dialysate solution draining in and sometime later the fluid w/ waste draining out by gravity peritoneal dialysis
dysuria, oliguria, frequency, urgency and nocturia are frequently seen in symptoms of BPH
dysuria difficult urination
oliguria difficult, scanty urine output
polyuria excessive urine output
hematuria presence of blood in the urine
uremia presence of urine materials in the blood
anuria absence of urine formation
which of the following is the term used for the upper, smaller chamber of the heart artria
which of the following is the term used for the lower , larger chambers of the heart ventricle
which of the following is the term used to describe the sac which encloses the heart pericardium
which of the following is a branch of the aorta and feeds the cardiac muscle coronary arteries
which of the following is characterized by midsternal chest pain with left arm pain which is provoked by exertion and relieved by rest angina pectoris
intense, constrictive cardiac pain, sometimes with diaphoresis, nausea leading to tissue ischemia, injury and death is a definition of myocardial infarction
use of and electrical defibrillator to convert the cardiac rhythm to normal is defibrillate
which of the following is not one of the cardiac layers endometrium
--------- blood is carried from the lungs to the LA through the ______ oxygenated; pulmonary veins
--------- blood is carried from the RV to the lungs via the deoxygenated pulmonary artery
-------- blood is carried from the system to the RA through the deoxygenated; vena cava
-------- blood is carried to the system from the LV through the oxygenated; aorta
the -------- lie/lies between the RA and RV tricuspid
the --------- lie/lies at the junction of the aorta and LV semilunar valve
the ------ lie/lies between the LA and LV mitral valve
the mitral valve is the same as the bicuspid valve
arteries have 3 layers the external is called, the middle is called, and the inner is called externia, media, intima
which of the following terms describes hardening and narrowing of the arteries arteriosclerosis
which of the following terms describes the deposit of fatty plaques along the aterial intima, causing a narrowed lumen atherosclerosis
which of the following is a direct effect of the two conditions of arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis hypotension
which of the following diseases is a characterized by spasm of the peripheral vessels of the fingers and toes; thereby causing ischemia of these area Raynauds disease
the period of heart contraction is called-------- the period of heart relaxation is called------- systole and diastole
which of the following comprise the conduction system SA node, Av node, bundle of his and branches, purkinjie system
which of the following are major characteristics of veins thin walls, low pressure valves
which are the major characteristic of arteries thick walls, high pressure, no valves
arteries always carry blood ---- heart and usually have--- blood; veins always carry blood----- and have ------- blood away from oxygenated; to deoxygenated
as the blood leaves the heart it is carried by-----, which branch off into----. which lead to the --- where gaseous exchange takes place arteries. arterioles, capillaries
as the blood leaves the------(where it picks up carbon dioxide) it is carried by tiny vessels called ------ and gradually they branch into larger vessels--------- capillaries, venules, and veins
in systemic capillaries, as the blood enters it drops off------ into the tissue and picks up------- oxygen, carbon dioxide
in the pulmonary capillaries , the situation is the exact opposite. As the blood enters from the heart it drops off ------ and picks up----- before returning carbon dioxide, oxygen
which of the following terms describes "a sudden failure of circulation" shock
abnormal cardiac sounds that are caused by a structural disorder organic heart murmur
a common sound frequently heard in young women and children that causes no difficulties functional heart murmur
a congenital heart disease and consists of a group of four specific structural abnormalities occurring together tetralogy of fallot
------- is a narrowing of the vessel lumen and ---- ia a widening of the vessel vasoconstriction; vasodilation
asystole absence of heart contraction
anasarca massive edema of thoracic cavity
bradycardia heart rate of less than 60
tachycardia heart rate of more than 100
palpitation fluttering feeling & pounding in chest
varicose veins swollen damaged veins
acrocyanosis bluish tinge color of extremities
claudication ischemia of lower extremities
aneurysm weakened, bulging, wall of artery
hemorrhoids swollen damaged veins of the rectum
echocardiograph record of heart sounds
Doppler testing study of blood flow
phonocardiography record of heart sounds
electrocardiography record of heart currents
angiography study of vessels using dye
carotid supplies head/ found at neck
subclavin supplies upper extremities
popliteal supplies calf/found at back of the knee
radial supplies hand/thumb side of wrist
mesenteric supplies intestines
vena cava largest vein of the body, drains into RA
jugular drains head
median basilic routinely used for venipuncture
saphenous drains foot, calf & thigh; longest vein of body
azygos drains chest wall
the function of the respiratory system is to obtain----to be picked up by the blood from the ------ oxygen; alveoli
Which of the following is described as divided passageways lined with the hair and mucus membrane? nose
Which of the following extend out from behind the nose and sometimes become inflamed and congested? Nasal Cavities
Which of the following are hollow areas of the skull bones which are highly susceptible to infection? paranasal sinuses
Which of the following are responsible for the sense of smell? olfactory cells
Which of the following is a combination of the throat and nasal cavities? Nasopharynx
Which of the following extend from the walls of the pharynx and connect the respiratory system to the middle ear? Eustachian Tubes
Which of the following organs is also called the windpipe and is made of cartilage and muscle? trachea
The ____ is the organ of speech and speech is produced by the air from the lungs flowing over the ______ larynx; vocal cords
Which of the following cover the trachea when swallowing to prevent aspiration? Epiglottis
During aspiration, food/liquid enters ___ instead of the _____ trachea; esophagus
Which of the following terms describes the initial two branches of the trachea? bronchi
Which of the following enters or exits the lung at the hilum? bronchi
Which of the following are considered to be part of the lung? Alveoli, bronchioles and the bronchial tubes
Which of the following is/are the initial branches of the bronchi? Bronchial tubes
Which of the following leads directly to the alveoli? Terminal Bronchioles
During inhalation oxygen is drawn into the alveoli; during exhalation co2 is expelled from them; the co2 was dropped off here from the ___ which came from the _____ Pulmonary artery; heart
Which of the following terms describes the space between the two lungs? Mediastinum
Which of the following terms describes the lining which adheres to the lung? Visceral pleura
Which of the following is responsible for the spread syndrome: that causes URI's? Mucus membrane lining
The diaphragm is a dome-shaped organ which causes inhalation when it ___, doing so in response to a message sent by the ___, and carried by the _____. Contracts; medulla; phrenic nerve
Which of the following is mainly responsible for the stimulation of the brain respiration? Carbon Dioxide level of the blood
Which of the following terms describes an inflammation of the lung? Pneumonitis
Which of the following conditions causes the alveoli to become thin, dilated, useless? Asthma and emphysema
Which of the following is caused by swelling of the trachea; difficulty in expiration and wheezing? Asthma
Which of the following is an infection of the alveoli and bronchioles; causing formation of exudate, which blocks these areas? Pneumonia
Which of the following conditions is extremely communicable, caused by a pathogen traveling to the alveoli where it forms a tubercle, destroying this tissue, and seems to be increasing in current society? tuberculosis
Irregularly fast, slow, shallow, deep respirations with total shoulder movement and at least a 20 second period of apnea; this describes Cheyne-stokes respirations
Which of the following therms describes the inability to breath lying down? orthopnea
Which of the following terms is used to describe the condition of increased CO2 in the cells with a drastic decrease in the O2 as well and is sometimes described as suffocation? asphyxia
Which of the following conditions is simply an upper respiratory infection caused by a virus and frequently involves stomach and GI upset? Influenza
The orthopneic position is: sitting up at a 90 degree angle
A patient with emphysema has which of the following symptoms CO2 trapped in alveoli and barrel-chest appearance
Lobar pneumonia is a serious condition because of its involvement of alveoli of an entire lobe
circum-oral cyanosis is A bluish tinge around the mouth
Which of the following procedures would be preformed to correct a deviated septum? Rhinoplasty
Which of the following terms describes a collapse of the lung? atelectasis
Which of the following describes air in the pleural cavity? pneumothorax
Which of the following terms describes pus in the pleural cavity? Empyema
Emphysema, CWP, and black lung disease are all forms of: COPD
Which of the following disorders causes formation of a membrane in the pharynx and respiratory tract causing swelling of the pharynx? Diphtheria
Which of the following is also termed whopping cough? pertussis
Which of the following is an infection and thickening of the fluid separating the parietal and visceral pleura? Pleural effusion
Which of the following terms describes abnormal rattling sounds(usually from mucus in the airways) heard during auscultation of the lung? Rales
Which of the following terms Is used to describe a head cold? Coryza
Ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal and maxillary are the four: Paranasal sinuses
Dyspnea Difficult breathing
Apnea temporary cessation of breathing
Hyperpnea abnormally deep and rapid respirations
Bradypnea slow respiration
Tachypnea rapid responses
anoxia absence of or severe lack of oxygen
hypoxia lack of air or proper amount of O2
asphyxia increased CO2, decreases O2 in cells
ischemia tissue lack of O2 caused by decreased blood
hyperventilation extremely shallow respiration, may be rapid
tidal volume 500cc. (normal breath- inhalation)
vital capacity 4800 cc (max. exhaled after max. inhaled)
residual volume 1200 cc (amount of air left after exhalation)
total lung capacity 6000cc (inhalation and exhalation
Created by: t4achange
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