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chapter 6 human pers

cell metabolism

TermDefinition
metabolism all the chemical reactions occurring in a living organism
catabolism chemical reactions that break down large organic molecules into smaller ones, with the release of energy.
anabolism the process of combining small molecules to make larger ones, requires energy, also know as synthesis
organic compounds substances that have large molecules and contain carbon
carbohydrates organic molecules that are the main source of energy for cells
inorganic not containing carbon, or having small molecules
enzymes an organic substance (usually a protein) that increases the speed of chemical changes without being altered
monosaccharides simple sugars or single unit sugars.
dissaccharides two simple sugars joined together maltose, lactose, sucrose
polysaccarides large number of simple sugars joined together, glycogen, starch
protein very large organic molecules made up of amino acids
lipids large organic molecules made up of fatty acids and gycerol
nucleic acid very large molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus
activation energy the energy required to get a reaction started
substrate a molecule upon which an enzyme acts
co-factors the ions or inorganic molecules required by enzymes to catalyst a reaction
co-enzymes non-protein organic molecules that are essential for the functioning of an enzyme
enzyme inhibitors a substance that slows or stops an enzyme's activity
cellular respiration the chemical reaction that make energy available for the cell;
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a molecule that stores energy in cells, energy is stored in the bond between the end phosphate group
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) the substance formed when the end phosphate group is removed from a molecule of ATP
glycolysis the break down of a glucose molecule to pyruvic acid; releases energy to form 2 molecules of adenosine triphosphate.
anaerobic respiration respiration that does not require oxygen
oxygen debt extra oxygen required after exercise in addition to the normal resting requirement; required to remove the lactic acid produced during exercise
recovery oxygen the extra oxygen required to recover after exercise
aerobic respiration respiration requiring oxygen to produce 34 ATP
Krebs cycle The series of reactions that occur in the mitochondria during aerobic respiration, producing 34 ATP
electron transport chain a series of chemical reactions occurring in the mitochondria of a cell whereby energy from carrier molecules is transferred to ATP for storage
nutrient any substance in food that provides energy, is essential for growth or assists in functioning of the body
synthesis a chemical reaction in which small molecules are joined to make larger molecules
Created by: keavyh1