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Chapter 6 Psychology

Keys terms chapter 6 (psychology in your life - Grison Heatherton, Gazzanga)

Learning A change in behavior, resulting from experience
Habituation a decrease in behavioral response after lengthy or repeated exposure to a stimulus
Sensitization An increase in behavioral response after lengthy or repeated exposure to a stimulus
Classical Conditioning A type of learned response in which a neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces a response
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) a stimulus that elicits a response that is innate and not learned
Unconditioned Response (UR) A response that is not learned; it is innate
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) A stimulus that is learned
Conditioned Response (CR) A response to a conditioned stimulus; a response that has been learned.
Acquisition A gradual formation of an association between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
Extiction A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus
Spontaneous recovery A process in which a previously extinguished response reemerges after the conditioned stimulus is presentation
Stimulus Generalization Learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response.
Stimulus Discrimination A differentiation between 2 similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus
Operant Conditioning A learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that the action will be performed in the future.
Positive reinforcement the addition of a stimulus to increase the probability that a behavior will be repeated
Negative Punishment the removal of a stimulus to increase the probability that a behavior will be repeated
Positive Punishment the addition of a stimulus to decrease the probability that a behavior will occur
Negative Punishment The removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability that a behavior will occur
Fixed interval schedule Reinforcing the occurrence of a particular behavior after a predetermined amount of time since the last reward
Fixed ratio schedule Reinforcing a particular behavior after the behavior has occurred a predetermined amount of times
variable Interval schedule reinforcing the occurrence of a particular behavior after an unpredictable and varying amount of time since the last reward.
variable ratio schedule Reinforcing a particular behavior after the behavior has occurred a unpredictable and varying number of times
Partial-reinforement extinction effect The greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforement
cognitive map A visuospatial mental representation of an environment
latent learning Learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement
insight learning A sudden understanding of how to solve a problem after a period of time inaction or thinking about the problem
observational learning The acquisition or modification of a behavior after exposure to at least one performance of that behavior
modeling The imitation of behavior through observational learning
vicarious conditioning Learning the consequence of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action
non-associative learning learning about stimulus from external world such as sight, smell, or sound. ex: habituation and sensitization
associative learning understanding how two or more pieces of information are related to each other. ex: classical and operant
Second-order conditioning When another conditioned stimulus is added that works almost the same as the CS but not paired with the US even though it still elicits a response
Counterconditioning exposing someone to a fear with something enjoyable to overcome a fear
systematic desensitiztion (created by Joseph Wolpe) entering a state of relaxation then thinking of the feared object while using relaxation techniques then being exposed to the fear in order to break connection.
Thorndike's Experiment (useing a cat, food, and lever) theory of learning, the law of effect that any behavior that have a satisfying outcome is very likely to happen again. and vise versa
Skinner's Experiment (useing rat, food, and lever) Same as Thorndike but coined terms operant and reinforcer
Shaping Reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior.
Premack Principle Using a more valued activity to reinforce a less valued activity "eat your spinach and then you'll get dessert"
continuous reinforcement reinforcement each time it occurs
partial reinforcment reinforcing depending on the schedule
Behavior Modification is the use of operant conditioning techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable ones
Created by: 1724527147792377
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