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Chapter 1 Notes

Psychology and Life

Define psychology The scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes.
List the goals of psychology as a science Describe, Explain, Predict & Control
Cognitive Psychologists Focus on basic cognitive processes such as memory and language
Social Psychologists Focus on the social forces that shape people's attitudes and behaviors.
Industrial-Organization Psychologists Focus their efforts on improving people's adjustment in the workplace.
School Psychologists Focus on student's adjustment in educational settings.
Most psychologists work in ____________ Independent Practice and Academic Settings
Structuralism The study of the structure of mind and behavior; based on the presumption that all human mental experiences could be understood as the combination of basic components.
Gestalt Psychology Pioneered by Max Wertheiner; focuses on the way in which the mind understands many experiences as gestalts--organized wholes--rather than as the sums of simple parts.
Functionalism Opposition of structuralism; Pioneered by William James. Gave primary importance to the learned habits that enable organisms to adapt to their environment and to function effectively.
Biological Perspective Identifying causes of behavior that focus on the functioning of the genes, the brain, the nervous system and the endocrine system.
Cognitive Perspective Stresses human thought and the processes of knowing, such as attending, thinking, remembering, expecting, solving problems, fantasizing and conciousness.
Psychodynamic Perspective Behavior is explained in terms of past experiences and motivational forces; actions are views as stemming from inherited instincts, biological drives, and attempts to resolve conflicts between personal needs and social requirements.
Humanistic Perspective Emphasizes an individual's phenomenal world and inherent capacity for making choices and developing to maximum potential.
Sociocultural/Cultural Perspective Focuses on cross cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior.
Behaviorist Perspective Observable behavior that can be objectively recorded and with the relationships of observable behavior to environmental stimuli.
Evolutionary Perspective Stresses the importance of behavioral and mental adaptiveness, based on the assumption that mental capabilities evolved over millions of years to serve particular adaptive processes.
Scientific method The set of procedures used for gathering and interpreting objective information in a way that minimizes error and yields dependable generalizations.
Health Psychologists Study how different lifestyles affect physical, health, design & evaluate prevention programs to help people change unhealthy behaviors and cope with stress.
Wilhelm Wundt Founded the first formal laboratory devoted to experimental psychology in 1879.
Edward Titchener Founded a laboratory at Cornell University in 1892.
William James Wrote "The Principles of Psychology"
G. Stanley Hall Founded The American Psychological Association in 1892.
Behavior The means by which organisms adjust to their environment.
Behavioral Data Reports of observations about the behavior of organisms and the conditions under which the behavior occurs.
Behavioral Neuroscience A multidisciplinary field that attempts to understand the brain processes that underlie behavior.
Behaviorism A scientific approach that limits the study of psychology to measurable or observable behavior.
Cognitive Neuroscience A multidisciplinary field that attempts to understand the brain processes that underlie higher cognitive functions in brains.
What kind of psychologist could answer the question, "How can I cope better with day-to-day problems?" Clinical Psychologist
Why kind of psychology could answer the question, "Why do I get sick before every exam?" Health Psychologist
What kind of psychologist could answer the question, "Why does my job make me depressed?" Industrial Psychologists
What kind of psychologist could answer the question, "How should teachers deal with disruptive students?" School Psychologists
PQ4R Preview, Questions, Read, Reflect, Recite and Review
Functionalism was developed by James and Dewey
Structuralism was developed by Wundt and Titchener
Created by: tamucnursing
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