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Physical Agents

Ultrasound (PTA)

Frequency used for muscle/tissue 1 MHz
Frequency used for superficial/bony 3 MHz
Which frequency setting penetrates deeper: 1 or 3 MHz? 1 MHz
For thermal effects, put the duty cycle on... 100%; Continuous
For NON-thermal effects, put the duty cycle on... <20%; Pulsed
For thermal effects at 1 MHz, adjust the intensity to... 1.5-2.0 W/cm²
For thermal effects at 3 MHz, adjust the intensity to... 0.5 W/cm²
For NON-thermal effects, adjust the intensity to... 0.5-1.0 W/cm²
Approx. DURATION of Ultrasound treatment 5-10 min.
the ERA (effective radiating area) covers... 1/2 the size of the sound head
Indications for US soft tissue shortening, pain control, dermal ulcers, surgical skin incisions, tendon injuries, resorption of calcium deposits, bone fractures, carpal tunnel syndrome, phonophoresis, plantar warts, herpes zoster infection
Precautions for US acute inflammation, epiphyseal plates, fractures, breast implants
Contraindications for US malignancy, pregnancy, CNS tissue, joint cement, plastic components, pacemaker, thrombophlebitis, eyes, reproductive organs
Adverse effects of US burns, blood cell stasis
US can penetrate ___________ of soft tissue 2-5 cm
What happens during continuous US? effects BUILD UP in tissues
What happens during pulsed US? interrupted waves allow RECOVERY in tissues
The _______ the frequency, the higher the absorption coefficient. higher
Absorption is most effective in what type of tissue? Tissue with high collagen content
What are the 3 types of NON-thermal US? Cavitation, Microstreaming, Acoustic streaming
In thermal US, what generates heat? Changes in the tissues
An acceptable BNR range is... 2-6
What is the importance of BNR (beam non-uniformity ratio)? Lower BNR minimizes the risk of “hot spots” and allows for higher doses to be applied
US at a ______ frequency is absorbed more rapidly than at a _______ frequency higher (i.e. 3 MHz); lower (i.e. 1 MHz)
Tissues with higher water content have a _______ absorption rate lower (i.e. skin and adipose tissue)
Thermal US heats a _______ area & reaches _______. smaller; deeper
Created by: s1234



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