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Chapter 4 Vocab

Element A substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.
Pure Substance A sample of matter either a single element or a single compound that has definite chemical and physical properties.
Metal An element that is shiny and that conducts heat and electricity.
Nonmetal An element that conducts heat and electricity poorly.
Metalloid An element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals.
Compound A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds.
Mixture A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined.
Solution A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout a single phase.
Solute In a solution, the substance in which the solute disolves.
Solvent In a solution, the substance in which the solute disolves.
Concentration The amount of a particular substance in a give quantity of a mixture, solution.
Solubility The ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure.
Suspension A mixture in which particles of a material are more or less evenly dispersed throughout a liquid or gas.
Colloid A mixture consisting of tiny particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and those in suspensions and that are suspended In a liquid.
Centrifuge Machine that separates mixtures by the densities of their components.
Distillation Process that separates mixtures based on the boiling points of the components.
Atom The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element.
Electron A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
Nucleus In physical science---an atom's central region, which is made of neutrons and protons.
Electron cloud A region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found.
Proton A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic mass unit A unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule.
Neutron A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is foundin the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element.
Isotope An atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do, but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass).
Mass number The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic mass The mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units.
Alkali Metals One of the elements of group 1 of the periodic table (Lithium, Sodium, potassium, etc.)
Alkaline Earth Metals One of the elements of group 2 of the periodic table (Beryllium, Magnesium, calcium, etc.)
Group A vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements Ina group share chemical properties.
Halogen One of the elements of group 17 of the periodic table (Flourine, Chlorine, Bromine, iodine, etc.); halogens combine with most metals to form salts.
Period In chemistry, a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.
Periodic Describes something that occurs or repeats at regular intervals.
Periodic Law The law that states that the repeating chemical and physical properties of elements change periodically with the atomic numbers of the elements.
Noble Gas One of the elements of group 18 of the periodic table (helium, neon, argon, etc.); noble gases are unreactive.
Created by: #PUGS4LIFE$$