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Intro of Pharm Tech

Ch. 10 - Basic Biopharmaceutics

TermDefinition
agonists drug that activate receptors to accelerate or slow normal cellular function
antagonists drugs that bind w/ receceptors but do not activate them. They block receptor action by preventing oother drugs or substances from activating them.
receptor the cellular material located at the site of action that interacts w/ the drug
site of action the location where an administered drug produces an effect
selective (action) the characteristic of a drug that makes its action specific to certain receptors and tissues.
duration of action the time drug concetration is above the Minimum Effective Concentration (MEC)
Minimum Effective Concentration (MEC) the blood concetration needed for a drug to produce a response.
Minimum Toxic Concentration (MTC) the upper limit of the therapeutic window. Drug concetrations above the MTC increase the risk of undesired effects.
onset of action the time MEC is reached and the response occurs
therapeutic window a drug's blood concentration range between its MEC and MTC.
active transport the movement of drugs from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration; cellular energy is required.
disposition a term sometimes used to refer to all of the ADME processes together.
elimination the processes of metabolism and excretion
hydrophilic capable of associating w/ or absorbing water.
hydrophobic water repelling; cannot associate w/ water.
lipoidal fat-like substance
passive diffusion the movement of drugs from an area of higher concentrationto lower concentration
absorption the movement of a drug from the dosage formulation to the blood
gastric emptying time the time a drug will stay in the stomach before it is emptied into the small intestine
complexation when different molecules associate or attach to each other
protein binding the attachment of a drug molecule to a plasma or tisssue protein, effectively making the drug inactive, but also keeping it within the body.
enterohepatic cycling the transfer of drugs and their metabolites from the liver to the bile in the gallbladder, then into the intestine, and then back into circulation
enzyme a complex protein that catalyzes chemical reactions
enzyme induction the increase in hepatice enzyme activity that results in greater metabolism of drugs
enzyme inhibition the decrease in hepatic enzyme activity that results in reduced metabolism of drugs
first-pass metabolism the substantial degradation of an orally administered drug caused by enzyme metabolism in the liver before the drug reaches the systemic circulation.
metabolite the substance resulting from the body's transformation of an administered drug.
glomerular filtration the blood filtering process of the nephron
nephron the functional unit of the kidney
absolute bioavailbility the bioavailability of a drug product compared to the same drug in a rapidly administered IV solution
bioavailability the amount of an administered dose that reaches the general circulation and the rate at which this occurs.
relative bioavailability the bioavailability of a drug product compared to the same drug in any other dosage form than a rapidly administered IV solution.
bioequivalency the comparison of bioavalability beween two dosage forms.
pharmaceutical alternative drug products that contain the same active ingredient, but not necessarily in the same salt form, amount, or dosage form.
phamaceutical equivalent drug products that contain identical amounts of the same active ingredient in the same dosage form.
therapeutic equivalent pharmaceutical equivalents that produce the same effects in patients
Created by: Hip