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Bio 2 Exam 2

pumps membrane proteins that provide active transport of molecules across the membrane, set up chemical gradients
sodium-potassium pump uses ATP to transports Na+ and K+, ions move against their concentration gradient
Steps of pump Na+ moves into membrane, sodium binds to wall of membrane, membrane changes shape, Na+ moves into the cell, K+ enters membrane from outside, potassium binds to wall of membrane, membrane changes shape, K+ moves into cell
lack all prokaryotes ____ a membrane-bound nucleus
prokaryotic cells one supercoiled circular chromosome in the nucleoid region of the cell
cytoskeleton support inside the cell by a network of long, thin, protein filaments
organelles membrane-bound compartments in cell, common in eukaryotic cells, contains enzymes specialized for a particular function
organelle tasks store calcium ions/other key molecules, hold crystals of the mineral magnetite, organize enzymes, sequester enzymes
plasma membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer, has proteins that either span the bilayer or attach to one side
cell wall forms a protective "exoskeleton", composed of rough, fibrous layer, surrounds the plasma membrane
e are larger, e chromosomes are found in nucleus, e cells contain extensive amounts of internal membrane, e cells feature a diverse and dynamic cytoskeleton 4 key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic
compartmentalized (separation of incompatible chemical reactions, increases efficiency of chemical reactions) eukaryotic cells are ________ (advantages?)
nucleus large and highly organized, information storage and processing molecule that deals with ribosomal synthesis
ribosomes non-membranous, deals with protein synthesis
RER network of membrane-bound tubes and sacs studded with ribosomes, synthesizes specific proteins that will be inserted in the plasma membrane, secreted to the cell exterior, and shipped to an organelle
golgi apparatus formed by cisternae and has distinct polarity cis=closest to nucleus trans=toward plasma membrane processes, sorts, and ships proteins synthesized in the rough ER
SER network of membrane-bound tubes and sacs lacking ribosomes, contains enzymes that catalyze reactions involving lipids
lysosomes single membrane-bound structures, found only in animal cells, used for digestion and waste processing
endocytosis process where the cell membrane pinches off a vesicle to bring outside material into the cell
ER signal sequence binds to a SRP that then binds to a receptor in the ER membrane
proteins synthesis steps packaged into vesicles, move from RER to golgi apparatus and from there to the cell surface
endomembrane system extensive manufacturing and shipping complex composed of the smooth and rough ER
signal hypothesis proteins contain a molecular 'zip-code' that marks them for transport through the nuclear pore complex
17-amino-acid a ______ long NLS allows proteins to enter the nucleus
mitochondria responsible for ATP production
peroxisomes globular organelles bound by a single membrane, remove e's from the ethanol in alcoholic beverages
exocytosis proteins release contents to the exterior of the cell
primary cell well composed of long strands of cellulose bundled into microfibrils
extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber composite that provides structural support support for animal cells
tight junctions seal cells together, composed of specialized proteins, dynamic and variable
desmosomes connect the cytoskeletons of cells
gap junctions act as channels between cells
hormone an information-carrying molecule secreted from a cell that circulates in the body and acts on target cells far from the signaling cell
lipid-soluble usually diffuse across plasma membrane and go into their target cells' cytoplasm
lipid-insoluble large/hydrophilic, do not cross plasma membrane, instead bind to a receptor on the cell's plasma membrane
signal receptors bound by hormones and other cell-cell signals, change shape after binding to a signaling molecule
signal transduction converts the extracellular hormone signal to an intracellular signal, occurs at plasma membrane
signal amplification occurs inside cell
quorom sensing unicellular organisms live together and communicate with one another, bacteria release species-specific signaling molecules when their numbers reach a specific threshold
biofilm group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often these cells adhere to a surface
endoplasmic reticulum ER of RER means?
reduction NAD+ --> NADH
oxidation NADH --> NAD+
how many molecules produced of NADH, FADH2, and ATP in citric acid cycle 6, 2, 2
phosphorylation energy released from ATP hydrolysis is used to transfer the cleaved phosphate group to target molecule
ATP function drives endothermic reactions due to extremely high PE, energy is released when it's hydrolyzed
coupled oxidation and reduction events are always ____
four steps of cellular respiration glycolysis, pyruvate processing, krebs cycle, electron transport chain
glycolysis glucose is broken down to pyruvate, a series of 10 enzyme driven chemical reactions
pyruvate processing _____ is oxidized to form Acetyl CoA
Krebs Cycle Acetyl CoA is oxidized to form CO2
Electron Transport Chain (ETC) by products from steps 1-3 are oxidized
feedback inhibition occurs when an enzyme in a pathway is inhibited by the product of that pathway
enzyme phosopfructokinase catalyzes one of the early reactions of glycolsis, has 2 binding sites-active and regulatory, decreases rate of reaction
pyruvate dehydrogenase catalyzing enzyme in second step of pyruvate processing
energy investment phase 2 molecules of ATP are consumed and glucose is phosphorylated twice
energy payoff phase sugar is split to form two pyruvate molecules, 2 molecules NAD+ are reduced to NADH and 4 molecules of ATP are formed
oxidized each acetyl CoA is _____ to two molecules of CO2
feedback inhibition in citric acid cycle between oxaloactate/citrate, cis-Aconitatae/D-Isocitrate/alpha-ketoglutarate
oxidative phosphorylation links phosphorylation of ADP with NADH and FADH2 oxidation
if protein complex is compromised.. you can die, no outlet for electrons-ETC stops
proton-motive force from the electrochemical gradient, used to make ATP in chemiostosis
job of ETC pump protons across the inner membrane of mitochondria from the matrix to the intermembrane space
why is oxygen the most effective electron acceptor it is highly electronegative and there is a large difference between the potential energy of NADH and O2 electrons
lactic acid fermentation pyruvate accepts electrons on the ETC instead of oxygen
alcohol fermentation pyruvate enzymatically converts acetalaldehyde which accepts electrons, produces ethanol
2 fermentation produces ___ ATP molecules
endothermic, reduces CO2 to sugar photosynthesis is ____ and does what?
exothermic, oxidixes sugar to CO2 cellular respiration is ____ and does what?
chemiosmosis results when the flow of protons through ATP synthase causes a change in its shape driving the phosphorylation of ADP
Created by: cohoonm