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Competency 16

Competency 16 handouts

TermDefinition
anticonvulsants do what? reduce seizures by reducing the excitability of the brain's neurons
antidiabetics are what? they treat the symptoms of diabetes but DO NOT cure it
antidiabetics, sub class insulins do what replace insulin not created by the pancreas
antidiabetics, sub class sulfonylureas do what? increase insulin release by the pancreas
antidiabetics, sub class biguanides do what? decrease the absorption of glucose and glucose output from the liver
antidiabetics, sub class tiazolidinediones do what? lower blood glucose by increasing insulin sensitivity
an antiemetic does what? block receptors in the chemo trigger zone, thus reducing emesis
antiemetic, subclass dopamine antagonist does what? centrally act on blocking dopamine receptors
antiemetic, subclass serotonin antagonist does what? blocks serotonin receptors
Agents for gout treat? treating different aspects of gout.
colchicine is used to .... prevent gout attacks
zyloprim (allopurinol) works by.... decreasing uric acid production
anti-hyperlipidemics are used to? lower cholesterol and triglycerides
anti-hyperlipidemics, sub class: bile acid sequestrant prevents what? the reabsorption of bile back into the body, leading to lower cholesterol
anti-hyperlipidemics, sub class: HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors prevent what? cholesterol from being syntesized.
anti-hyperlipidemics, sub class: Fibric Acid Derivatives do what? lowers triglycerides and elevate HDL
Anti-hypertensives are drugs that are used to ..... lower blood pressure through various mechanisms of action.
Anti-hypertensive, sub class beta blockers do what? lower blood pressure by lowering cardiac output
Anti-hypertensive, sub class alpha blockers do what? lower blood pressure by lowering cardiac output
anti-hypertensive, sub class diuretics do what? decrease blood pressure by decreasing blood volume
anti-hypertensive, sub class diuretics, sub sub thiazides do what? increase the excretion of sodium and chloride
anti-hypertensive, sub class diuretics, sub sub loop do what? generate a larger elimination response than that of the thiazides,
Anti-hypertensive, sub class angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) do what? relax the blood vessels and increase excretion of sodium and water
Anti-hypertensive, sub class calcium channel blockers do what? block the movement of calcium ions into cell membranes and cause vasodilation
Anti-infectives drugs can either 1 or 2 1. kill an infectious agent or 2. inhibit it from spreading
Anti-infective, sub class Penicillins do what? eliminate infection causing bacteria. Bactericidal
Anti-infective, sub class Cephalosporins do what? eliminate infection causing bacteria. bactericidal
they are divided into 5 generations because? the higher the generation, the stronger the drug, the stronger the infection it can fight
First generation is most active against? gram-positive aerobes
Second generation has improved.... activity over first generation
third generation is active against.... serious gram negative infections
fourth generation is a ...., broad spectrum against both gram-negative and gram-positive
fifth generation is effective against...., methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
special note, many patients who are allergic to penicillin.... have a 10% chance of also being allergic to cephalosporins
Anti-infective, sub class, monobactams are used to.... treat severe infections
Anti-infective, sub class glycopeptide antibotics are use to.... treat intestinal infections that cause colitis
Anti-infective, sub class Macrolides are effective against.... a wide range of microorganisms and are primarily bacteriostatic
Anti-infective, sub class Tetracyclines are mainly ________ but in high concentration can be _________ bacteriostatic, bactericidal
anti-infective, sub class sulfonamides are used to .... kill bacteria by interfering with bacterial synthesis
anti-infective, sub class quinolones/fluoroquinolones are primarily used to treat _________ UTIs
anti-infective, sub class antituberculosis agents are effective in the treatment of _____________ tuberculosis
anti-infective, sub class anti-fungals are used to treat _________ _______________ fungal infections
anti-infective, sub class of drugs ending in -azoles are used to treat.... various fungal/yeast infections
anti-parkinson's disease drugs are used to _____ ______ levels increase dopamine
anti-virals work by .... inhibiting a step in the viral replication process
anti-virals treat these diseases..... 6 cold sores, shingles, chicken pox, hepatitis, HIV, other viral infections
corticosteroids produces a wide range of effects that 1. influence...2, modify.... and 3. produce.... 1. influence metabolic pathways, 2. modify response of the immune system and 3. produce anti-inflammatory activity
Gastrointestinal, sub class antacids do what? neutralize existing stomach acid
Gastrointestinal, sub class gastric mucosal agents form.... a protective layer on the mucosal lining
Gastrointestinal, sub class histamine (h2) receptor antagonists compete with.... histamine for binding sites on gastrointestinal tract.
Gastrointestinal, sub class proton pump inhibitors interfere with... gastric acid secretion
Gastrointestinal, sub class anti-diarrheals reduce ___________ diarrhea
Gastrointestinal, sub class laxatives and stool softeners stimulate.... bowel movements to relieve constipation
Cardiac, sub class anti-anginals increase... blood flow thus increasing oxygen supply while decreasing the workload of the heart, decreasing demand for oxygen
Cardiac, sub class anti-anginals 5 types.... nitrates, calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, alpha blockers, antiarrhythmics
Cardiac, sub class vasopressors are also called _______ and they increase the ..... inotropes, force of the cardiac contraction
Cardiac, sub class glycosides increase the .... force of the contraction of the heart thus decreasing overall heart rate.
Hematologic agents drugs effect the .... blood coagulation, thinning and reproduction process
Hematologic, coagulating enhancers assist in the .... formation of blood clots in the blood
Hematologic, anti-coagulating agents act.... against blood clot formation
Hematologic, anti-platelet agents prevent.... arterial clot formation
Hematologic, thrombolytic enzymes aid the .... dissolving of existing clots
Hematologic, hemostatic agents are used to .... treat of prevent excessive bleeding
Hematologic, hematopoietic agents are used to.... assist or stimulate the growth of blood cells
Analgesic agents do what? block or reduce the perception of pain but not its cause
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to primarily.... and their effectiveness.... reduce inflammation in reducing pain, varies from patient to patient
Anti-migraine also called ___________ work by treating.... tryptans, existing migraines
Psychotropic agents are used in the treatment of ....3 behavior, psychotic state and sleep
Psychotropic agents, sub class anti-depressants are used to treat the .... symptoms of depression
Psychotropic agents, sub class anti-psychotics are used to treat patients with....2 various cognitive and psychological disorders
anti-psychotics, phenothiazines are used to treat.... serious mental and emotional disorders including schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
anti-psychotics, sedative/hypnotics are used to reduce ______ anxiety
anti-psychotics, benzodiazepines are used as ....3 muscle relaxants, sedatives and anticonvulsants
Respiratory drugs are used to .... prevent, relieve or treat respiratory diseases
Respiratory, sub class asthmatic drugs are used to treat asthma conditions
Respiratory, sub class bronchodilators do what? decongest the bronchiole tubes
Respiratory, sub class corticosteroids do what? reduce inflammation associated with asthma
Respiratory, sub class anti-histamines are primarity _____ ______ ______. they prevent _____ _____, reduce ______ and may increase ____________ H1 receptor antagonists. prevent allergic reactions, reduce nausea and may increase sedation
Respiratory, sub class decongestants do what? increase drainage and reduce congestion by shrinking mucous membranes
Respiratory, sub class anti-tussives ____ _______ suppress coughs
Respiratory, sub class expectorants do what? decrease the thickness of phlegm from the lungs which aid in its expulsion.
Created by: suestaffa