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Chapet 7 Memory


Encoding Sends information to long-term store
Retrieval Brings information from LTM to working memory
Attention Selects information from sensory memory
Sensory Memory Preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second
What is Sensory Memory's function, capacity and duration? Function:To sustain sensations foridentificationCapacity: Very large (“scenic”) Duration: Very short (i.e., ½-3 sec)
Iconic memory The visual sensory store
Sperling experiment Subjects saw three rows of letters for short second thand they had to remember which row was colored...
What is short term memory? Is a limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds.
What is the function, capacity and duration of STM? Function:To do conscious work; to thinkCapacity: Seven items plus or minus one or twoDuration:10-15 seconds
What is working memory? Alan Baddeley proposal of a more complex modular model of short term memory.
Phonological loop (working memory) Evolved to facilitate the acuistion of language,and its the first component working memory model. "temperaraly hold on phone number"
Visuospatial sketchpad permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images.
Central executive system It controls the deployment of attention,switching the focus of attention and dividing attention as needed.
Implicit Memory is remembering something without being aware that you are remembering it. It is an automatic or an unconscious form of memory.
Explicit (or declarative memory) conscious awareness, things you remember deliberately.Memory in which there is a need for conscious recollection in order to recall something
priming effects if recent exposure to stimulus, more likely to respond with that stimulus
classical conditioning effects or emotional conditioning event-event learning formed outsideconsciousness
What is the function, capacity and duration of LTM? Function:To tie together the past with thepresentCapacity:Enormous(essentially unlimited)Duration: Permanetly
Levels of processing theory The theory holding that deeper levels of mental processing result in longer lasting memory codes.
Schema Is an organized cluster of knowledge about a particlar object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event.(ie, the office that didnt have books, but thought that there were books b/c of their schema)
flashbulb memories are unusually vivd and detailed recollection of momentous events
semantic network Consists of nodes representing concepts,joined together by pathways that link related concepts.
spreading activation ie when people think about a word, their thoughts naturally go to related words, this is a rocess called spreading actiation within a semantic network.
What is a tip of the tongue phenomena? The temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it's just out of reach.
reconstruction of memories Part of what people recall about an event is the details of that particular event and part is a reconstruction of the event based on their schemas.
What did Elizabeth Loftus find with regard to memory change? Planting memories? that misinformation effect occurs when participants' recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading postevent information.
source monitoring involves making attributions about the origins of memories, ie "did i read that in new york times or in rolling stone?"
Reality monitoring The process of deciding whether momories are based on external sources(one/s perceptions of actual events) or internal sources(one's thoughts and imaginations) ie "did i pack the umbrella or only think about packing it?
What is Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve? trom his experiments on himself, he concluded thatforgetting is extremely rapid immediately after original learning and then levels off.
Recall Measure of retention requires subjects to reproduce information on their own without any cues. ie. fill in the blanks on tests
Recognition Measure of retention requires subjects to select previously learned information from an array of options. ie mutiple choice questions
What is interference? People forget information because of competition from other material.
What is decay? Forgetting occurs because memory traces fade woth time.
Encoding specificity principle the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code
What is transferappropriate processing? Occurs when the initial processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention
What is long-term potentiation? is a longlasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway.
What is anterograde amnesia? involves the loss of memories for events that occur after the onset of amnesia
Retrograde Amnesia involves the loss of memories for events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia
What is the role of thehippocampus? critical for many types of long term memory, damage to it causes severe memory impairment.
amygdala Is critical to the formation of memories for learned fears and may also contribute to the consolidation of other emothional memories.
Rehearsal Maintains information in working memory
George Miller known for identifying the capacity of short-term memory as "seven plus or minus two items"
parallel distributed processing models They make sense based on research from neurophysiological research.It requires the execution of operations in a sequence.It explains the blazing speed of human's cognitive functioning better then other models do.They provide a plausible account for how me
Which of the following sequences represents progressively deeper levels of processing? structural, phonemic, semantic
Procedural memory is memory for actions, skills, and operations, memory for how to do things.
Retroactive Interference is when a person has difficulty recalling old information because of newly learned information. For example, you may have difficulty skiing because of recently learning how to snowboard.
Semantic Encoding type of encoding in which the meaning of something is encoded as opposed to the sound or vision of it
Acoustic encoding is the processing of sound, particularly the sound of words.
Declarative memory is the aspect of human memory that stores facts.
Primacy effect longterm memory effect
Recencey effect short term memory effect
Episodic Memory specific time and specific place in your life, Mr.Warring lost. memory for a specific apsode in your life. "i remember when we did..." ie. what did
Semantic Memory refered to as general knowledge. ie. "what is your mothers name?"
Created by: mhalet
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