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Chapter 13 test

Neural structures other than the brain and spinal cord are all part of the peripheral nervous system
most receptors in the PNS are __ receptors; that is, they are not part of a specific body structure dedicated to receiving information from the environment simple
receptors in body structures dedicated to receiving information from the environment, such as the eyes and ears, are __ receptors and the structures themselves are called the __ organs complex; special sense
__ respond to pressure, itch, touch, vibration, and stretch mechanoreceptors
__ are sensitive to changes in temperature thermoreceptors
__ respond to light energy; in humans, these are found in the retina photoreceptors
__ respond to chemicals, and are used in our senses of smell and taste and to detect changes in blood chemistry chemoreceptors
__ are receptors that are dedicated to sensing pain nociceptors
receptors near the body's surface which respond to changes in the external environment are called __ exteroceptors
__ are receptors in internal viscera and blood vessels which sense chemical changes, temperature, and other factors necessary to maintain homeostasis interoceptors (or visceroceptors)
__ are receptors which are found in skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, ligaments, etc., which allow us to sense the position of the body proprioceptors
free nerve endings are responsible for detecting __, __, __, __ and __. pain, temperature, itch, joint, movement, proprioception
merkel disks respond to __ light pressure
hair follicle receptors are responsible for detecting __ light touch (hair deflection)
Meissner's corpuscles are responsible for detecting __ light pressure, texture
pacinian corpuscles are responsible for detecting __ deep pressure
ruffini's corpuscles are responsible for detecting __ deep pressure or stretch
muscle spindles are responsible for detecting __ muscle stretch
Golgi tendon organs are responsible for detecting __ tendon stretch
__ is the awareness of changes in the internal or external environment while __ is their interpretation. Both of these occur only in the __ sensation; perception; CNS
In order for an event to be sensed, an appropriate receptor must convert the stimulus to an __ electrical signal (or action potential)
__ are the neurons that are the first to generate an action potential in response to an event. first order neurons
the soma (cell bodies) of the first order neurons reside in the __ or __ ganglia. dorsal root; cranial
the __ are the interneurons in the CNS which receive the signal from the first order neurons. their cell bodies are found in the __ of the spinal cord or in the __, and convey their signals within the spinal cord, or to the thalamus or cerebellum. second order neurons; dorsal horn; medullary nuclei
some sensory signals are received by third order neurons in the __ and are passed on to the cerebrum for perception. others are never perceived, but are instead only sensed and acted on at he subconscious level. thalamus
perception occurs in the __ cerebral cortex
A __ potential is a membrane potential that is caused by an event in the environment and which reaches the threshold level needed to generate an action potential. generator
a generator potential is a __ potential and so depends on the strength of the stimulus graded
in receptors that are capable of adaption, an unchanging stimulus leads to a __ response decreasing and eventually absent
afferent ganglia are found in the __, adjacent to the __ dorsal root ganglia; spinal cord
efferent ganglia are primarily __ motor neurons whose distribution is __ autonomic; complex
__ are cordlike organs in the PNS consisting of peripheral axons, blood vessels, and connective tissue nerves
the __ is the connective tissue surrounding individual axons with a nerve endoneurium
the __ is the connective tissue surrounding a fascicle of axons in a nerve perineurium
the __ is the connective tissue surrounding the entire nerve (including the blood vessels). epineurium
after the axon of a peripheral neuron is damaged, the __ end deteriorates. distal
After the axon of a peripheral neuron is damaged, __ cells detach from the myelin sheath and divide to guide new axonal growth. Schwann
signals carrying information regarding odors are carried to the brain via cranial nerve # __, the __ nerve. 1; olfactory
visual signals are carried to the brain via cranial nerve # __, the __ nerve 2; optic
cranial nerve # __, the __ nerve, is primarily a motor nerve: it controls the eyelid, four of the six extrinsic muscles which move the eye, and also resized the iris and focuses the lens. 3; oculomotor.
cranial nerve # __, the __ nerve, innervates only one of the six muscles which move the eye, the superior oblique muscle. 4; trochlear
cranial nerve # __, the __ nerve, controls several of the muscles needed for speech, chewing, and swallowing, as well as carrying sensory information from the face, scalp and mandibles 5; trigeminal
cranial nerve # __, the __ nerve, innervates the muscles of the eye which abduct the eyeballs. 6; abducens
sensations of taste and the ability to control facial expression are provided by cranial serve # __, the __ nerve. it also helps with swallowing and controls the tear glands and two sets of salivary glands. 7; facial
cranial nerve # __, the __ nerve, carries sensations needed for hearing and maintaining balance. 8; vestibulocochlear
cranial nerve # __, the __ nerve, is involved in taste and carries sensory signals from the tongue, middle ear, and pharynx. it also assists in monitoring blood pressure and blood gas concentrations by carrying information received from receptors nt he ca 9; glossopharyngeal
cranial nerve #__, the __ nerve, is the only cranial nerve to extend below the neck. it innervated the throat and mouth as well as thoracic and abdominal organs. 10; vagus
cranial nerve # __, the __ nerve , is the only 'cranial' nerve to include a spinal root. it innervated the larynx, pharynx, and several muscles of the neck. 11; accessory
cranial nerve # __, the __ nerve, allows tongue movement during eating and speaking 12; hypoglossal
__ are small bundles of axons emerging from or entering the spinal cord rootlets
as the distance from the spinal cord increases, rootlets merge to form __ roots
__ are roots that are formed from the axons of neurons whose cell bodies are in the anterior horn of the spinal cord ventral roots
the dorsal roots are formed from the axons of neurons whose cell bodies are in the __ dorsal root ganglia
dorsal roots contain __ fibers sensory (afferent)
Spinal nerves leave the spinal column through __ intervertebral foramen
the ventral and dorsal roots merge to form the __ as they exit the vertebral column spinal nerves
soon after the exiting the vertebral column, each spinal nerve divides into four branches, the __, __, __, and __ dorsal ramus; ventral ramus; meningeal branch; rami communicantes
the rami communicates are found only in the __, because they are part of the __ thoracic region; ANS
a __ is a complex network of interacting and cross connected nerves plexus
each nerve leaving a plexus is a combination of axons fro several __ spinal nerves
plexuses consist of axons from the __ rami of spinal nerves ventral
all ventral rami except those from __ intertwine in plexus T 2 - T 12
__ innervate the thorax, controlling muscles to the ribs, anterolateral thorax, and abdominal wall ventral rami from T1 to T12
because of the complex intertwining of the motor nerves in plexuses, damage to the spinal nerves can be difficult to diagnose based on motor deficits, and must instead be diagnosed based on __. sensory deficits
a dermatome is a __ area of skin innervated by a single spinal nerve
the __ innervates the skin of the neck, ear, back of the head, shoulders, and diaphragm, and is formed from the ventral rami of __ cervical plexus; C1 to C4
the most important nerve of the cervical plexus is the __, which innervates the diaphragm and controls __ phrenic; breathing
the __ plexus innervates the upper limb, and is formed from the ventral rami of __ brachial; C5 to T1
the five ventral rami that form the __ of the brachial plexus merge to form three __, which then quickly branch into six __. these then recombine to form three __. finally these branch again to form the five nerves of the upper limb roots; trunks; divisions; cords
the __ nerve of the brachial plexus innervates the deltoid and teres minor. axillary
the __ nerve of the brachial plexus innervates the biceps brawchii, brachialis and corabrachialis muscolucutaneous
the __ nerve of the brachial plexus innervates most of the flexor muscles of the forearm and the lateral portions of the hand. median
The __ nerve of the brachial plexus innervates the flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum profundus and the medial portions of the hand ulnar
the __ nerve of the brachial plexus innervates parts of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii as well as nearly all of the extensor muscles of the forearm. radial
the __ plexus innervates the thigh, abdominal wall, and psoas muscles, which is formed from the ventral rami of __. lumbar; L1 to L4
thigh flexion, thigh abduction and knee extension are mediated by the __ and __, two major nerves of the lumbar plexus femoral nerve; obturator nerve
the __ plexus innervates the foot and the leg, and is formed from the ventral rami of __. sacral; L4 to S4
The __ is the major nerve of the sacral plexus and is the longest and thickest nerve of the body. it is actually a single name for two separate nerves, the tibial nerve and the fibular or peroneal nerve. sciatic nerve
the __ nerve innervates the foot and the leg sciatic
a __ is a rapid, involuntary response to a stimulus reflex
if its effector is a skeletal muscle, a reflex is a __ reflex somatic
if its effector is a smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or gland, a reflex is a __ reflex autonomic
__ reflexes cause contraction of a stretched muscle and relaxation of the antagonist muscle. the most famous example is the patellar reflex, in which the muscles of the quadriceps are stretched by tapping the patellar tendon. stretch
pulling a body part away from a painful stimulus is a __ reflex flexor OR withdrawal
the __ relex leads to activation of flexors on one side of the body and extensors on the opposite side. cross-extensor
with age, the number of general sensory receptors such as Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles __ decreases
the __ reflex prevents an overly-powerful muscle contraction from tearing a tendon by inhibiting the contraction of the muscle Golgi tendon
Created by: alyssa_yocom