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Radt 465 Eq Op & QC

ARRT registry review covering equipment operations and QC

QuestionAnswer
What is the source of electrons in a x-ray tube? the heated cathode filament pg 437
bremsstrahlung radiation a high speed electron passing near or through a tungsten atom, is attracted and "braked" by the positively charged nucleus and directed from its course with a loss of energy. The energy loss is given off in the form of an x-ray photon. pg 437
characteristic radiation A high speed electron encounters a tungsten atom within the anode and ejects a K shell electron leaving a vacancy. An electron from the adjacent L shell moves in to fill the K shell vacancy causing a K characteristic ray to be emitted. Pg 438
characteristics of tungsten high atomic number, high melting point (3410 degrees celsius) to resist cracking, thermal conductivity for heat dissipation pg 452
anode graphite/molybdenum beveled edge, tungsten/rhenium alloy focal track (0,6-1,2mm), molybdenum stem pg 452
induction motor rotates anode, stator (outside glass envelope) and rotor (inside glass envelope) pg 452
x-ray tube diode that has a negative electrode (cathode) and a positive electrode (anode) pg 453
thermionic emission heating of the filament to incandescence and subsequent release of electrons pg 453
line focus principle The effective focal spot is always smaller than the actual focal spot. pg 455
properties of x-ray photons travel in straight lines, travel at the speed of light, not perceptible by senses, are electrically neutral, have penetrating effect on matter, have ionizing effect on air, have photographic effect on film, have a spectrum of energies pg 440
wavelength distance between two consecutive wave crest pg 441
frequency refers to the number of cycles per second; unit of measurement is the hertz pg 439
direct current electric current flowing through a conductor in only one direction and with constant magnitude pg 444
alternating current amplitude and polarity of the current vary periodically with time pg 444
generators change mechanical energy to electrical energy pg 444
motors change electrical energy to mechanical energy pg 444
step-up transformer transformers that increase voltage pg 446
autotransformer sends the correct amount of voltage to the primary of the high-voltage (step-up) transformer to be stepped up to the required kilovoltage pg 447
step- down transformer decreases voltage pg 448
rectifiers solid state diodes made of semi-conductive materials that permit the flow of electricity in only one direction pg 450
What is the focusing cup made of? nickel pg 451
What is the filament made of? tungsten pg 451
inherent filtration materials that are a permanent part of the x-ray tube and housing, "built in" pg 456
added filtration thin sheets of aluminum that are added to make necessary total thickness of aluminum equivalent filtration (2.5mm) includes the collimator and mirror pg 456
collimator used to define the size and shape of the x-ray field that emerges from the x-ray tube port window pg 456
backup timer used to protect the patient from unnecessary exposure, and the x-ray tube from damage should the AEC fail to operate properly pg 462
spinning top evaluates timer accuracy pg 462
primary/ low voltage circuit components main switch/ circuit breaker, autotransformer, kV selector switch, line voltage selector, timer, primary coil of HV trasformer, and exposure switch pg 463
secondary/ high voltage circuit components secondary coil of HV transformer, mA meter, rectifiers, and x-ray tube pg 464
two types of AEC phototimer: located behind the IR ionization chamber: located above the IR pg 465
pixel two dimensional, picture element, and measured in XY direction pg 466
bit binary digit and smallest unit of computer data pg 466
Bit depth number of bits per pixel/ determines grayscale pg 466
matrix number of pixels in XY direction making up a digital image pg 466
PSP phosphor usually barium fluorohalide, granular or turbid shape pg 475
PSP layers from top to bottom protective layer, barium fluorohalide layer, reflective layer base, antistatic layer, and lead foil pg 475
Created by: IammeTc5