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MGT 342 - Exam 2

Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
Describe several factors that cause uncertainty. Ch. 4 decision makers do not have sufficient info about envrmt factors, and they have difficult time predicting external changes - Elements change frequently, and unpredictably
How does environment complexity lead to organizational complexity? Ch. 4 The more external elements that regularly influence the organization, and the greater number of other companies in an organization domain, the greater the complexity.
Methods for adapting to a changing environment. Ch. 4 **Wouldn't fit on slide** Planning, Forecasting, and Responsiveness -Organization need right fit btwn internal structure and the external environment Adding Postions and Depts: -> Boundary-spanning roles & Bus Intel. -> Building Relationships. - Differentiation and Integration - Organic vs. Mechanistic Mngt Process
Differentiation Ch. 4 refers to "the differences in cognitive and emotional orientation among managers indifferent functional departments, and the difference in formal structure amount these departments.
Describe several methods for influencing external resources. Ch. 4 Balance linkages and independence Reach out and change or control elements in the environment: - Establish favorable/formal relationships with key elements of the environment - Shape the environment by influencing key sectors
Describe an organizational ecosystem. Ch. 5 a system formed by the interaction of a community of org. and their environment. Cuts across Traditional Industries lines. Megacommunicty Approach: business, govt, and nonprofit org. join across sectors and industries to solve mutual issues.
Why have mutual dependencies and partnerships become facts of life in business today? Ch. 5 - Changing technology and new regulations present organizations with international competition - Organizations are involved in complex networks, the number of corporate alliances are increasing - Traditional competition no longer exists
What is a collaborative network? Ch. 5 - Collaboration allow risks to be shared - Cooperation is a prerequisite for greater innovation - Interorganizational linkages provide a kind of safety net that encourages long-term investment and risk - Org. are moving from adversaries to partners
Do you believe the population ecology concept is healthy; i.e., new organizations emerge and old ones die? Ch. 5 Yes, for example the caribou herd, and pack of wolves. The wolves eat the weaker caribou to strengthen themselves along with the caribous herd. With co-evolution, the whole system becomes stronger.
How does the process of variation, selection, and retention work? Ch. 5 Variation: Large # of variations appear in population of org. Selection: Some org. find nice, and survive Retention: A few org's grow large, and become institutionalized in the environment
Define legitimacy and institutionalism. Ch. 5 Institutional perspective: -Mng survival -Balance expectations of envm. -Institutional Envm. -Norms and values of stakeholders -Adopt structures and processes to please outsiders Legitimacy - Org.'s actions are desirable, proper and acceptable
What three forces influence similarity? Ch. 5 Mimetic Forces–to copy or model other organizations Coercive Forces – organization to adopt structures, techniques or behaviors similar to other organizations. Normative Forces – adopt standards and techniques of proff. comm.
Why should we expand internationally? ( 3 reasons) Ch. 6 Economic, technological, and competitive forces have combined to push companies from a domestic to a global focus. Motivation to Expand: - Economies of Scale - Economies of Scope - Low-Cost Production Factors
New markets, resources, customers <--(Elaborate) Ch. 6
What are the 4 stages of international development? Ch. 6 Domestic Stage International Stage Multinational Stage Global Stage See Pg. 223 for more detail
Describe the 4 global structures. **Why do they choose things?** Ch. 6 International Division Global Product Division Global Geographic Division Global Matrix Structure
Describe at least 3 global coordination mechanisms. **Why, & Where are we going to work together?** Ch. 6 - Global Teams - Headquarters Planning - Expanded Coordination Roles
Describe uncertainty avoidance as cultural issues. Ch. 6 **Who does & doesn’t accept these viewpoints?** When members feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity **Japanese are not OK with uncertainty at any point. Germans don’t like uncertainty. (Uncertainty Avoidance)
Define and describe the transnational model. Ch. 6 **At least 3 characteristics of this model** More Slide 16 & 17 PPT - Assets and resources are dispersed worldwide - Structures are flexible and ever-changing - Subsidiary mngrs initiate strategy and innovations that become strategy for the whole org. - Corporate culture, shared vision and mngmnt style guide the org.
The Organization Environment Ch. 4 All the elements that exist outside the boundary of the organization Potential to affect all or part of the organization. Domain - is the chosen environmental field of action Sectors - or subdivisions that contain similar elements
Task Environment Ch. 4 Sectors that the organization interacts with directly to achieve goals - Typically the “industry” and market sectors - Raw Materials - Human Resources - also includes International Sector
General Environment Ch. 4 Sectors that may not have direct impact on the daily operations Government sector Sociocultural sector Economic conditions Technology sector - How expensive & for what reason? Financial resources Extremely important to entrepreneurs
Dimensions of Environment Range Ch. 4 - Unstable - Homogeneous - Heterogeneous - Simple - Complex The dimensions boil down to: - The need for information about the environment - The need for resources from the environment
Organic Ch. 4 If it is DEcentralized then it’s organic (we want everyone to know, try to get the word everybody). Quick decision making needed. “Spread the Word”
Mechanistic Ch. 4 If something is centralized then it is mechanistic. Not 100% of the time though (Only telling people that need to know about things). The slowly changing environment this works for. “The COC(Chain of Command)”
Simple + Stable Environment Uncertainty Ch. 4 = Low Uncertainty 1. Small number of external elements, and elements are similar 2. Elements remain the same or change slowly 3. Homogeneous - an organization that is the same throughout. 4. Preferred I.E. Soft drink bottlers, container mfg
Simple + Unstable Environment Uncertainty Ch. 4 = High Moderate Uncertainty 1. Small number of external elements, and elements are similar 2. Elements change frequently, and unpredictable 3. Homogeneous - the same throughout I.E. E-Commerce, Fashion clothing, music industry
Complex + Stable Ch. 4 = Low-Moderate Uncertainty 1. Large number of external elements, and elements are dissimilar 2. Elements remain the same or change slowly 3. Heterogeneous - Things are different or continues to change. I.E. Univsrities, Insurnce Cmpny, Chemical Cmpny
Complex + Unstable Ch. 4 = High Uncertainty 1. Large number of external elements, and elements are dissimilar 2. Element change frequently and unpredictably 3. Heterogeneous - Differentiation & Integration! I.E. Computer Firms, Aerospace (Rocket's explode)
Integration Ch. 4 required to coordinate departments when the environment is highly uncertain, frequent changes require more information processing to acheive horizontal coordination.
Integration Ch. 4 required to coordinate departments when the environment is highly uncertain, frequent changes require more information processing to acheive horizontal coordination.
Integration Ch. 4 required to coordinate departments when the environment is highly uncertain, frequent changes require more information processing to acheive horizontal coordination.
Integration Ch. 4 required to coordinate departments when the environment is highly uncertain, frequent changes require more information processing to acheive horizontal coordination.
Resource-dependence Perspective Ch. 4 means organizations depend on the envmt Strive to acquire control over rsrces to min dependence - Orgnz are vulnerable if rsrces are controlled by other Orgnz - Minimize Weakness -team up with others when resources are scarce I.E. Intel & Ore Mine
Interorganizational relationships resource transactions, flows, and linkages that occur among two organizations
Power distance Ch. 6 **Who does & doesn’t accept these viewpoints?** How people accept inequality. Mexican accept that people are better than others. (Power Distance)
National Approaches to Coordination Control 1. Centralized Coordination: Japanese Companies 2. Decentralized Approach: European Firms 3. Coordination and Control Through Formalization: The United States
Created by: ekmabary92
 

 



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