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Chap 3 Abdomen

Procedures1. Bontrager.

KUB Kidneys, ureters, bladder
3 most important abdominal muscles? Diaphragm, left and right psoas majors.
Diaphragm separates what? Abdominal cavity from thoracic cavity.
Psoas major muscles are located where? Either side of the lumbar vertebral column.
6 organs of the digestive system? Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
What is the first organ of the digestive system located in the abdominal cavity? Stomach.
What is the second organ of the digestive system in the ab. cavity? Small intestine.
What are the 3 portions of the small intestine, going in order from 1st to last? Duodenum, jéjunum, ileum.
The shortest but widest of the small int? Duodenum
Ileocecal valve is? valve between the distal ileum and the cecum portion of the large intestine
Cecum? Saclike portion of the large intestine below the ileocecal valve.
What is the appendix is attached to? Posteromedial aspect of the cecum.
Vertical portion of the large bowel above the cecum? Ascending colon
The ascending colon joins the _____ at the ____ colic flexure. Transverse colon, right colic flexure.
The transverse colon joins the _____ at the ___ colic flexure. descending colon, left colic flexure.
Right colic flexure AKA? Hepatic flexure
Left colic flexure AKA? Splenic flexure
The descending colon continues as the s-shaped _____ in the lower ___ abdomen. Sigmoid colon, lower left abdomen.
Final 15 cm of the large intestine? Rectum.
Anus is? The end of the rectum, sphincter muscle at opening of large intestine.
The spleen is part of what systems? Lymphatic and circulatory.
Where is the spleen located? Posterior and to the left of the stomach, left upper quadrant.
3 accessory digestive organs? Pancreas, live, gallbladder.
Why is the pancreas part of two systems? Endocrine (internal) for producing hormones such as insulin, and Exocrine (external) for producing digestive juices.
Pancreas is located? Posterior to stomach, near abdominal wall between the duodenum and the spleen.
Liver location and function? Right upper quadrant. Production of bile.
Gallbladder location and function? Pear shaped sac below liver. Store and concentrate bile, release bile.
Each kidney drains via its own ___, to the ___. Ureter, bladder.
Where is the bladder? Above and behind the symphysis pubis.
Where are the suprarenal glands of the endocrine system located? Superomedial portion of each kidney.
Adrenal glands AKA? Suprarenal glands.
Why is the ___ kidney usually lower than the other? Right kidney is lower than left, because of the large liver on the right side.
Parietal peritoneum? Cavity wall peritoneum.
Visceral peritoneum? Covers an organ peritoneum.
Peritoneal cavity? Space or cavity between parietal and visceral peritoneum, contains serous lubricating fluid.
Ascites condition? Abnormal accumulation of lube fluid in peritoneal cavity.
Mesentery Double folds of peritoneum that hold the small intestine in place-connects to posterior wall of abdomen.
Omentum double fold peritoneum that extents from stomach to another organ.
Lesser omentum extends superiorly from the lesser curvature of the stomach to portions of the liver
greater omentum connects transverse colon to the greater curvature of the stomach inferiorly.
mesocolon Peritoneum that attaches colon to posterior abdominal wall.
What are the names of the 4 portions to which the mesocolon connects? Ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid/pelvic.
Lesser sac smaller portion of upper posterior peritoneal cavity, posterior to stomach.
greater sac major portion of peritoneal cavity, often called peritoneal cavity.
Lesser sac is aka? omentum bursa
Retro- "backward" or "behind"
Infra- "under" or "beneath"
Retroperitoneal organs are ? structures closely attached to the posterior abdomen wall. Less mobile and move less.
Male vs female peritoneal enclosures? Lower aspect of peritoneum is a closed sac in the males, but not females. Uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries pass directly into the peritoneal cavity.
Xiphoid process T9-T10. Approximates the superior margin of the abdomen/diaphragm.
Inferior costal rib margin L2-L3. Used to locate upper organs such as gallbladder/stomach
Iliac crest L4-L5. Uppermost portion of curved ilium border. Approx midabdomen.
Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) Anteriorly and inferiorly of iliac crest.
Greater trochanter same level as superior symphysis.
Symphysis pubis anterior junctior of the two pelvic bones. Superior anterior portion corresponds to the inferior margin of abdomen, but use trochanter instead.
Ischial tuberosity 1-4cm (1.5 inches) below/distal to symphysis pubis. Used to determine the lower margin on a PA ab w/ pt in prone position.
Acute abdominal series "two-way"
Acute ab series "three-way" AP supine, AP erect, PA chest erect
Ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in peritoneal cavity
Pneumopertioneum free air or gas in peritoneal cavity
AP projection- supine ab. (KUB) Center and kV range? Center of IR to iliac crests, bottom at symph pubis. 70-80 kV
AP projection- erect ab. Center, center 2 inches above iliac crests, which places top of IR approx at axilla.
Lateral decub, what side down and why? Left side down to best see free intraperitoneal air in the area of the liver.
Ileus non mechanical small bowel obstruction, or mechanical ileum is obstruction of bowel from hernia/adhesions.
Perforated hollow viscus bowel or stomach evident by free intraperitoneal air
intra-abdominal mass neoplasms- benign or malignant
Where do you center on a KUB? Crest. All others are 2" above crest
Created by: Zoest35