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Chapter 12b Test

QuestionAnswer
the _____, scattered throughout the brain stem, allow us to filter out unimportant sensory information such as background noises. reticular formation
an _____ is a recording of the brain's electrical activity/ EEG or electroencephalogram
alpha and beta brainwaves occur ______, while theta waves are more common in _______. primarily in alert adults; children.
delta waves occur ______. during deep sleep
during _____ sleep, skeletal muscle movement is inhibited and most creams occur. REM
during _____ sleep, the brain wave patterns mimic wakefulness. REM
the type of memory that allows us to complete actions without committing the to permanent memory is called ____ or ____ memory. short-term; working
in order for a memory to become permanent, it must be associated with pre-existing memories
memories of specific words, associations, or facts are classified as _____ or ______ memories. factual; declarative (or explicit)
riding a bike or roller skating are examples of _____ or _____ memory. skill; procedural (or implicit)
damage to the ______ will prevent the acquisition of new declarative memories. limbic system.
procedural memory is mediated by the _______, one of the basal nuclei. corpus striatum
two changes that occur at he cellular level in the formation of new memories are the formation of new ______, or changes in the strength of the ______. synapses; response at existing synapses
the addition of extra neurotransmitter receptors at an existing synapse during the formation of a memory to make the synapse more responsive to a brief signal is an example of ______. long term potentiation.
the ______ are a set of three connective tissue membranes that surround the CNS. meninges
the tough, fibrous, double-layered, outermost meninx is the _____. dura mater
the separation between the cerebral hemisphere is reinforced by an extension of the dura mater called the ______. anteriorly, it is attached to the crista galli of the skull, and so helps to hold the brain in position. falx cerebri
the ______ are tubes that are formed between the two layers of the dura mater through which venous blood flows. dural sinuses
the _____ is the middle meninx. arachnoid mater.
the ____ is the innermost meninx; it clings tightly to the surface of the brain, even in the sulci pia mater
the wide, cerebrospinal fluid containing space is between the _____ mater and the pia mater and is called the _____ space. arachnoid; sub-arachnoid
the main blood vessels supplying the brain are in the ____ space sub-arachnoid
______ fills the ventricles and surrounds the brain and spinal cord, acting as a chock absorber, distributing nutritive materials, removing wasted, and providing a chemically stable environment. Cerebrospinal fluid
the cells of the capillaries in the brain are unusual in that they are _______. joined by tight junctions
capillaries in the brain are much less ______ than capillaries elsewhere in the body. permeable
cerebrospinal fluid is formed in regions within the ventricles called ______ by ______ cells. choroid plexuses; ependymal
after the CFS is formed, it circulates from the lateral ventricles to the third and fourth ventricles, and from there to the ______ and central canal of the spinal cord. sub-arachnoid space
after circulation the CSF returns to the blood by passing through the____, which are clusters of the arachnoid mater which project into the dural sinuses and act as one-way valves. arachnoid granulations
impaired blood circulation tot he brain due to a blocked or broken vessel is known as a ________. cerebrovascular accident; stroke; brain attack
(true/false) most of the neuronal death due to a stroke occurs several minutes or even hours after the stroke begins, allowing time for emergency treatment to have a major effect. TRUE
an abnormal child up of beta-amyloid protein fragments in the regions surrounding neurons, and of neurofibrillary tangles in the cytoplasm of pyramidal neurons and in that of neurons whose axons connect with them, are the causes of neuronal death in ____ Alzheimer's disease
in the elderly, drug reactions, poor circulation, or disease, all of which may be curable, can mimic the dementia caused by ______, which is not Alzheimer's disease
in Huntington's disease, damage to the caudate nucleus, one of the basal nuclei, caused by an abnormal protein leads to _____ and eventually death chorea (or involuntary spastic movements)
loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra leads to tremor, muscular rigidity, slow movement and postural instability in Parkinson's Disease
the _____ is formed of paired strips of cells arising fro the ectoderm at the margin of the neural tube neural crest
the spinal cord itself is formed form the _____, and the dorsal root ganglia are formed from the _____. neural tube; neural crest
the spinal cord extends from the _____ to the ______; below L1 it branches to form the _____. skull; L1 vertebra; cauda equina
in addition to the vertebral column, the spinal cord is protected by the ____ and ____. meninges; CFS
in the inferior regions, there is a gap between the ____ and the ___ into which anesthetics are often introduced ("epidural" - upon the dura) dura mater; vertebrae
the butterfly-shaped central cone of gray matter in the spinal cord can be divided into three regions. the ____ contains the cell bodies of somatic motor neuron anterior horn
the butterfly-shaped central core of gray matter in the spinal cord can be divided into three regions. the ___ contains the cell bodies of the autonomic motor neurons and is present only in the thoracic and upper lumbar (L1 and L2) regions. lateral horn
the butterfly-shaped central core of gray matter in the spinal cord can be divided into three regions. the ____ contains interneurons posterior horn
the axons of the neurons from the ____ and ____ horns emerge together as the ventral roots lateral; anterior
the ____ are formed from the cell bodies of sensory neurons whose axons branch to extend inward to the spinal cord and outward toward the body. dorsal root ganglion
____ are white matter columns consisting of the myelinated axons of neurons associated with the spinal cord. Funiculi
the neuronal cell bodies for the ascending pathways of the spinal cord itself are found in the ____ or ____. dorsal horn; dorsal root ganglia
neurons in the ____ have axons which extend from the receptor to the spinal cord, or in some cases all the way to the brain dorsal root ganglia
neurons of the dorsal horn receive signals from those in the ____ dorsal root ganglia. their own axons extend to reach neurons in the brain stem, diencephalon, etc. dorsal root ganglia
detailed info concerning position, vibration, or fine touch are transmitted by the __ pathway of the somatosensory tracts of the spinal cord. this pathway is located in the __ specific ascending (or lemniscal); posterior funiculus
info regarding crude touch, temp, pressure, and pain is carried through the __ pathway of the somatosensory tracts of the spinal cord non-specific ascending (or anterolateral)
messages carried in the specific and non-specific ascending pathways, ultimately reach the somatosensory cortex on __ the sensor. the side of the body opposite to (contralateral to)
impulses from the trunk and lower limb regarding position and movement are carried through the __ pathway of the somatosensory tracts of the spinal cord. this pathway is located in the __ spinocerebellar; lateral funiculi
messages carried in the spinocerebellar pathways ultimately reach the cerebellum on the __ sensor the same side of the body as (ipsilateral to)
signals from the pyramidal cells in the motor cortex to the spinal cord are carried by the __, one of the two motor tracts of the spinal cord direct system (or pyramidal system)
signals controlling automatic movements such as those needed to maintain balance are carried by the __ system, one of the two motor tracts of the spinal cord. indirect system ( or extra-pyramidal system)
the motor tracts of the spinal cord are located in the __ lateral and anterior funiculi
damage to the ___ of the spinal cord prevents nerve impulses from reaching the muscle and causes the muscles to remain limp, a condition called ___ paralysis anterior horn neurons; flaccid
Damage to the __ in the brain causes the muscles to contract involuntarily and somewhat at random, a condition called __ paralysis. primary motor cortex; spastic
because injuries to the anterior spinal cord are nearly always accompanied by injuries to the __, flaccid paralysis is often accompanied by __. posterior spinal cord; numbness (or anesthesia)
long term paralysis results in irreversible deterioration of the __. muscle
in __, a contrast dye is injected into one or more arteries to make them visible in X-rays. angiography
__ tests are used to verify that the spinal cord and brain are functioning properly. reflex
in __, multiple X-rays, taken from many angles, are combined by computer into a 3D image. CAT scans (or CT scans)
in ____, radio waves are used to produce detailed images which include soft tissues. MRI
in __, metabolism by each tissue is measured by passing the patient through a circular scanner after he or she has been given a small amount of a radioactive chemical. PET scans
conventional diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease requires two or three years, while newer techniques such as __ may provide a rapid and unambiguous diagnosis. PET scans
drugs, radiation, infections, and malnutrition are particularly dangerous while a woman is pregnant because they can alter __. CNS development
in the elderly, blood pressure abnormalities, poor circulation, poor nutrition, prolonged inactivity and drug interactions can all induce __. reversible (curable) senility
Created by: alyssa_yocom