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MOD 7: lecture 5

ankle and foot dysfunction

QuestionAnswer
How many bones are in the ankle and foot? 26
What are the 4 functional regions in the ankle and foot? ankle, midfoot, rearfoot, forefoot
What happens if there is a change or pathology in one jt in the ankle and foot complex? it influences the entire lower kinematic chain
Name the 2 joints that are a part of the ankle. distal tibfib and talocrural
At which joint are movements small but provide accessory motion to allow greater freedom of movement at the ankle. distal tibfib
What are the 3 functional areas of the foot? rearfoot, midfoot, forefoot
Which areas do the functional arches of the foot span? all 3, rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot
Which bones serves as the keystone for the lateral longitudinal arch (LLA)? cuboid
Which bone serves as the keystone for the medial longitudinal arch (MLA)? talus
Which arch is a dynamic stabilizer (from contraction of the instrinsic muscles)? transverse arch
How does the transverse arch maintain stability? via the action of the peroneus longus and posterior tibialis
What does a loss of the anterior metatarsal arch result in? callus formation under the heads of the metatarsal heads
A loss of what arc causes callus formation under the heads of the metatarsal heads? anterior metatarsal arch
Name 5 functions of the foot. 1. Acts as a BOS that provides the stability for standing 2. Provides mechanism for rotation of the tibfib during the stance phase 3. Provides flexibility to adapt to uneven terrain 4. absorbs shock 5. Acts as a lever during push-off
Name the 5 joints of the foot. rearfoot, midfoot, forefoot, metatarsals, toes
What are the articulating structures in the talocrural joint? tibia, fibula and talus.
What is the mortis? the superior aspect of the TCJ
What is the mortis formed between? medial malleolus, distal tibial plafond, and the lateral malleolus
Which surface of the talus fits within the mortise? convex surface of the talus
Describe the axis of motion at the ankle joint runs from the anteriomedial superior aspect to the posteriolateral inferior aspect
What type of motion does the oblique orientation of the axis at the ankle allow for? triplanar
What ligaments are involved in the tibfib joint? anterior tibiofibular, posterior tibiofibular, and inferior transverse ligaments
How much motion is available at the tibfib joint? Minimal motion
What are the movements that occur at the rearfoot? PF, DF, mild amount of Abduction with DF, Mild amount of Adduction with PF
What structures provide medial stability at the ankle joint? Deltoid ligament
What structures provide lateral stability at the ankle joint? calcaneofibular,anterior-talofibular and posterior talofibular ligaments
What is the most common injury at the ankle sprain strain of the lateral ligamentous structures
What structures are articulating in the STJ? talus (superiorly) and calcaneus (inferiorly)
What type of axis does the STJ have? Oblique axis that allows triplanar motion
What ligaments play a role in stabilizing the STJ? Interosseous talocalcaneal and cervical ligament
What ligament of the STJ becomes taut during eversion? interosseous talocalcaneal ligament
What ligament of the STJ becomes taut during inversion? cervical ligament
What motions accompany pronation at the STJ? (open chain) eversion, DF, and ABD of calcaneus.
What motions accompany supination at the STJ? (open chain) inversion, PF, and ADD of calcaneus
What motions accompany pronation at the STJ? (closed chain) calcaneal eversion with PF and ADD of the talus on the calcaneus
What motions accompany supination at the STJ? (closed chain) calcaneal inversion with DF and ABD of the talus on the calcaneus
At what ankle position during gait is the STJ a mobile adapter, allowing the foot to conform to irregular surfaces? pronation
At what ankle position during gait is the subtalar joint a rigid lever that allows the propulsion required to move the body forward? supination
true or false...The subtalar joint does not allow tibial rotation during gait. False, it does allow tibial rotation
Name 5 joints in the midfoot. calcaneocuboid, talonavicular, naviculocuboid, naviculocuneiform, and intercuneiform joints
Name 4 ligaments in the midfoot. deltoid, dorsal talonavicular, calcaneonavicular, and calcaneocuobid ligaments
What type of movements occur in the midfoot? gliding and rotation
What allows triplanar motion at the mid tarsal joints so the forefoot can twist on the rearfoot? 2 axes of motion; longitudinal and oblique
In the midfoot, inversion and eversion occur around what type of axis? longitudinal axes
In the midfoot, PF/ADD and DF/ABD occur around what type of axis? oblique axis
How are the motions of INV, EV at the midfoot observed during gait? observed as the rise and fall of the medial arch during gait
What are the 4 types of joint structures in the distal to mid foot? tarsometarsal (TMT), intermetatarsal (IMT), metatarsophalangeal (MTP) and the interphalangeal (IP) joints.
What is the function of the MT heads in the forefoot? tolerate WB forces
What structures tolerate WB forces in the forefoot? MT heads
What is the function of the toes? help stabilize the forefoot dynamically. Abnormal alignment of the forefoot can affect the WB position of the subtalar joint.
What 2 foot deformities can cause compensation in WB? Forefoot varus – causes compensatory STJ pronation, and Forefoot valgus - causes compensatory STJ supination
What are the MT joints held together by? the plantar fascial aponeurosis
What do the MT joints do? Act as beams to support the longitudinal arches of the feet.
Compare the 1st and 2nd MT size wise. haha The 1st metatarsal is twice as wide and four times as strong as the 2nd
How many ms attachments does the 1st MT have? Name them. three mm attachments (peroneus longus, posterior tibialis, and anterior tibialis)
What is the function of the ms attachments of the 1st MT in relation to the foot? they dynamically stabilize the foot during propulsion
Name something in the toes that helps to stabilize the longitudinal arch and decreases the pressure on bones. tension in the toe flexor tendons and sheaths
PRINT OUT EVERYONES ASSIGNMENT AND MAKE A PACKET UP FOR THE DISORDERS? MMKAY
Created by: PTROCKS