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Unit 2 chest 308

QuestionAnswer
Divisions of chest anatomy 1Bony thoracic, 2Respiratory system, 3Mediastinum
Sternum contains 1Manibrium, 2Body, 3Xiphoid, 4Clavicle, 5Scapulae
How many pair of ribs are there 12
How many thoracic vertebrae is there? 12
Where is the prominens C7
Four structures of mediastinum T-trachea, E-esophagus, T-thymus, Heart and great vessels
How many types of body habiti are there? 4
Name the four body habitus Hypersthetic, Asthenic, Hypostenic, Stenic
What is the near average patient Hypostenic
What is considered to be the average patient Stenic
What is the percentage of patients that are hypersthenic 5%
What is the percentage of patients that are asthenic 10%
What is the percentage of patients that are hypostenic 35%
What is the percentage of patients that are stenic 50%
Inspiration vs expiration List 3 dimensions: Vertical, transverse, AP diameter
The Minimum of ribs must be shown in a good chest x-ray 10
Reasons for erect chest -Allows diaphragm to move farther down -demonstrates air-filled levels -prevents engorgement of pulmonary vessels
Evaluation criteria prt.1 -optimal radiograph -definable standard -established standard as stated for each projection
Rotation on lateral chest is evident by? Lack of superimposition of posterior ribs
Topographic land marks for PA chest CR: 3-4 in. Below jugular notch
Evaluation criteria prt.2 7 parts -entire lungs included -no rotation -scapulae removed from lungs -full inspiration -equal collocation top and bottom -no motion -exposure factors -and don't forget lead apron
PA/AP CHEST Mas:3... Kv:110
Lateral position Mas:6...Kv:125
AP with grid Mas:1.7...Kv:110
Lateral decubitus AP Mas:3....Kv:125
AP lordotic Mas:3.5...Kv:125
RAO & LAO Mas:4..Kv:125
RPO & LPO Mas:3...Kv:125
Lateral position:upper airway Mas: 3...Kv:80
AP projection upper airway Mas:10...Kv:80
Apiration Foreign objects evident on lower airways of frontal an lateral chest..radiographically: radiodense or radiopaque outline
Atelectasis Condition rather than disease where a lung collapse may be evident by a more....radiographically: radiodense area, trachea and heart to shift to the affected side
Bronchiectasis Irreversible dilation of bronchioles thay cause there to be mucus and pus..radiographically:radiodense lower lung
Bronchitis Condition in which excessive mucus is secreted into bronchi..it is presented in radiographs: by hyperinflation and more dominant lung markings
Respiratory disease syndrome (RDS).monly called healing membrane disease in infants...adult respiratory distress syndrome .it is an emergent condition in which the alveoli and capillaries of the lung are injured..on Radiograph: it will show granular pattern and normal air spaces filled with fluid..sign is "air bronchiogram"
Empyema Occurs when the fluid is pushing and it may develop when pneumonia or a lung access spreads into the pleural space..fluid is pus
Hemothorax Occurs when fluid is blood that causes pleural effusion..shows up by fluid levels on horizontal beam and best shown by laying on affected side lateral decubitus
Pleurisy Inflammation in lungs causing rubbing sounds. May be demonstrate by radiographic associated pleural effusion.condition called "dry pleurisy" and does not include fluid accumulation and generally I not visible on radiographs
Pneumonia Accumulation of fluid within certain sections of lung and creating increased radiodensities in these areas. Initial diagnostic examination PA chest and lat...patchy infiltrate with increased radiodensity
Aspiration pneumonia Aspiration of foreign object or food into lungs, irritates bronchi, resulting in edema...patchy infiltrate with increased radiodensity
Bronchopneumonia Is bronchitis of both lungs that most commonly is caused by strep bacteria...patchy infiltrate with increased radiodensity
Lobar pneumonia Generally is confined to one or two lobes of lung....patchy infiltrate with increased radiodensity
Viral (interstitial) pneumonia Causes inflammation of the alveoli and connecting lung structure. Evident in increased radiodensities in region surrounding hila, patchy infiltrate
Pneumothorax Is an accumulation of air in pleural space that causes partial or complete collapse of lung. Radiographically-lung may be seen displaced away from chest wall & no lung markings
Pulmonary edema Condition of excess fluid withing lung and most frequent case is from Pulmonary circulation has been backed up which I associated with CHF. Radiographs: diffuse increase in radiodensity in the hilar regions, air-filled levels
COPD Persistent obstruction of airways that usually causes difficulty emptying the lungs of air.mild cases not detectable on on chest radiographs, but more extreme cases are clearly demonstrated.....depends on underlying cause
Cystic fibrosis Secretions of heavy mucus cause progressive "clogging" of bronchi and bronchioles. Radiographically: increased radiodensities in specific lung regions
Dyspnea SOB which creates a sensation of difficulty breathing and common in older adults. PA and lateral chest radiographs are taken as initial procedure followed by other exam. Radiographically: depends on cause of dsynea
Emphysema Irreversible chronic lung disease. Alveoli become greatly enlarged and causes from smoke/dust. Radiographically: increased lung dimensions, barrel chest with depressed and flattened diaphragm, radiolucent lungs
Epiglottitis Life threatening condition that develops rapidly. Radiographically: narrowing of upper airway at epilottic
Lung neoplasia New growth or tumor. May be cancerous or noncancerous
Benign Pulmonary mass found in peripheral regions of lung. Radiographically: readiodensities with sharp outlines, mass may be calcified the
Malignant Lung cancer. Radiographically: slight shadows in early stages and as more sharply defined, larger radiopaque masses in more advanced cases
Pleural effusion Condition abnormal accumulation of fluid in pleural cavity. Radiographically:increased readiodensity, air fluid levels, possible mediastinal shift
Created by: knschmidt