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IP Unit 5

Work, Energy, and Simple Machines

In Science, this is defined as “when a force moves an object a distance.” Work
The ability to do work or cause changes in matter Energy
The SI unit for Work and energy Joule
One of the two main types of energy: energy that is stored; the energy of position or height of an object above the earth's surface. Potential Energy
One of the two main types of energy: the energy of motion Kinetic Energy
When a book is dropped, it has this kind of energy. Kinetic Energy and mechanical energy
A stretched rubber band is an example of this. Elastic Potential Energy
The fuel used by a rocket stores energy as this. (All food and fuels store this energy.) Chemical Potential Energy
An object held up above the surface of the ground has this. Gravitational Potential Energy
The higher an object is above the ground... The more gravitational potential energy the object has.
Once used, these can be easily replaced. Renewable Resources
Water, wind, and sunlight are examples of these. Renewable Resources
Once used, these cannot be easily replaced. Uranium is one example of these. So is coal and oil. Nonrenewable Resources
Petroleum, natural gas, and coal are all this: Fossil Fuels (Nonrenewable Resources)
How are fossil fuels produced? Fossil Fuels are created from decayed materials by heat and pressure over many millions of years.
A new fuel made from renewable organic material from plants or animals Biomass Fuels
Electricity produced by combining Hydrogen and Oxygen gases with water as the only byproduct Hydrogen Fuel Cells
Electricity produced when falling or running water turns a generator. Hydropower or Hydroelectricity
What is a disadvantage of using hydroelectric power? Hydroelectricity can disturb natural ecosystems, because dams are often built to control it.
Thermal energy from the ground (often in the form of magma) harnessed for electricity or heat. Geothermal
Electricity produced when wind turns a propeller which then turns a generator. Wind power
What are the advantages of using wind power? Wind power is clean, inexpensive and available everywhere.
What are the disadvantages of using wind power? The wind must be blowing. Large wind farms produce noise, and may have ecological effects.
Electricity generated by sunlight hitting a photovoltaic cell Solar power
The form of energy caused by motion of mechanical parts (like windmills and buses) Mechanical Energy
The form of energy due to the movement of electrically charged particles Electrical Energy
The form of energy related to the movement of atoms that make up matter (more is produced as the atoms move faster) Heat or Thermal Energy
This form of energy is in the form of electromagnetic radiation (light waves, x-rays, radio waves...) Radiant Energy
The form of energy that comes from the fusion or fission of the center of an atom (nucleus) Nuclear Energy
What is the fuel most often used for nuclear energy? Uranium
The form of energy created by movement of air molecules caused by vibration (loudspeakers produce this) Sound Energy
The form of energy stored in the bonds of molecules in food and fuels (like gasoline) Chemical Energy
The formula for kinetic energy KE (J) = 1/2 m (kg) x v2 (m2/s2)
The formula for gravitational potential energy GPE (J) = m(kg) x 9.8 m/s2 x h (m)
The formula for Work Work = Force * distance => W (J) = F (N) * d (m)
According to the law of conservation of energy, what is true about the total amount of energy in the universe? The total amount of energy in the universe remains CONSTANT.
What does the Law of Conservation of energy state? Energy may change from one form to another, but the total amount of energy in the Universe never changes.
What gas produced by burning fossil fuels is thought to lead to global warming? Carbon dioxide
What is the biggest problem with our continued use of fossil fuels? Fossil fuels are a nonrenewable resource.
The form of energy due to the attraction between two objects due to their masses and distance apart. Gravitational energy
The form of energy due to the attraction of objects made of iron, nickel, or cobalt. Magnetic energy
Almost all energy on earth comes from this source. The Sun
Solve the following: Two students rearrange a room by moving a desk 3.0 m across the room. If they exert a horixontal force of 200 N, how much work have they done? 600 Nm or J
Sierra serves a volleyball with a mass of 2 kg. The ball leaves her hand with a speed of 30 m/s. What is the kinetic energy of the ball? 900 J
The potential energy of an apple is 6 J. It is sitting on a shelf that is 3 m high. What is the mass of the apple? .20kg
A grooved wheel with a rope, chain, or cable running along the groove. Pulley
An inclined plane with one or two sloping sides. It is used for prying or cutting. Wedge
A bar that is free to pivot or turn around a fixed point. Lever
A shaft or axle attached to the center of a larger wheel, so that the wheel and axle rotate together. Wheel and Axle
A sloping surface, such as a ramp that reduces the amount of force required. It is usually used for lifting up. Inclined Plane
A cylindrical shape with an inclined plane wrapped around it. Screw
Give an example of a compound machine. Scissors, bicycle, etc.
What class of lever is a broom? When you sweep with it the pivot is your shoulder, you push in the middle, and work is done at the end. Third Class lever
What class of lever are scissors? First Class Lever
What class of lever is a wheel barrow? Second Class Lever
What is the mechanical advantage of a machine? It tells how much a machine multiplies your force. It is the ratio of output force/input force, or input distance/output distance.
How do simple machines make work seem easier? They change the force needed by the person using them, but NOT the work done.
A device that does work with only one motion simple machine
A device that is made up of two or more simple machines compound machine
Created by: tbrandt