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Pharm Assign. 1

Pharmacology Assignment 1, general pharm, drug admin and calc

TermDefinition
Veterinarian-Client Relationship Criteria 1. Vet assumes responsibility for making judgements and Client agrees to follow instruction 2. Vet has knowledge to diagnose 3. Vet available for follow-up eval
Pharmacokinetics Complex series of events that occurs once a drug is administered to patient: Absorption, Distribution, Biotransformation, Excretion
Intradermal Inj. in the skin
Intraperitoneal Inj. into abdominal cavity
Intraarterial Inj. into artery
Intraarticular Inj. into joint
Intramedullary Inj. into bone marrow cavity
Epidural/Subdural Inj. into spine
Bioavailability Measures amt. of drug that gets absorbed and is available to patient
Water-soluble Dissolve in presence of water. Tend to stay in bloodstream
Lipid-soluble Absorbed by body fats. Tend to move into interstitial fluid between organs and tissues
Four processes of transformation (or metabolism) 1.Oxidation 2.Reduction 3.Hydrolysis 4.Conjugation
Oxidation loss of electrons in drugs chemical makeup
Reduction gain of electrons in drug's chemical makeup
Hydrolysis Splitting of drug's molecule and addition of water molecules to split portion
Conjugation joining together two compounds (drug and glucuronic acid) to make another compound that dissolves quicker in water
Half-life the time it takes for half of the drug to be removed from the animal's system
Pharmacodynamics study of mechanisms by which drugs produce physiological changes in the body (cellular level)
Agonist drugs Drugs that attach to certain receptors and cause specific actions
antagonist drugs Drugs that block receptors from being acted on
Partial agonists Drugs that partially fit into receptors, causing partial affinity or efficacy and blocking rest of receptor
Efficacy Degree to which a drug produces desired effect
Potency Amount of drug needed to produce desired effect
Lethal Dose Dose of drug that is lethal to 50% of animals given that drug
Effective dose Dose of drug that produces desired effect in 50% of animals given that drug
therpeutic index LD/ED higher the therapeutic index, the safer the drug is the lower, the more dangerous
proprietary drug name trade name
generic drug unpatented copy of drug
US Food and Drug Admin. (FDA) regulates development and approval of animal drugs and feed additives through Center for Veterinary Medicine
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates development and approval of animal topical pesticides
Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) regulates substances that have potential for human abuse
US Dept. of Ag. (USDA) development an approval of biologics (vx, serums, antitoxins)
Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD) produces safe foods of animal origins
Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act made extralabel use of approved vet drugs legal
FDA policy on compounding allows compounding of medications in order to medicate animals of various sizes, etc.
Veterinary Feed Directive Gave CVMA ability to better regulate drugs that go into animal feeds
Four sources of drugs 1. botanical 2.Animals 3.Laboratories 4. Bacteria and molds
Technician responsibilities during drug admin 1. Correct drug 2. correct route and time 3. Animal's response 4. Question unclear orders 5. Correct label 6. Explaining orders to clients 7. Recording in record
8 Factors that affect absorption process 1. mechanism of absorption 2. pH and ionization status of drug 3. Absorptive surface area 4. Blood supply to area 5. Solubility of drug 6. Dosage form 7. Status of GI tract 8. Interaction with other meds
Biotransformation body's ability to change a drug chemically from the form in which it was administered into a form that can be eliminated from the body (aka turned into a metabolite). (liver)
Site of drug excretion kidneys
6 things that are included on drug container label 1. Drug names (generic and trade) 2. Drug concentration and qty. 3. Name and address of manufacturer 4. Controlled subst. status 5. Manufacturer's control of lot number 6. Expiry date
The Green Book list of all animal drug products that are approved by FDA for safety and effectiveness
Three classes of drug interactions 1. Pharmacodynamic 2. Pharmacokinetic 2. Pharmaceutic
Pharmacokinetic interaction Plasma or tissue levels of a drug are altered by presence of another
Pharmacodynamic interaction action or effect of one drug is altered by another at site of drug action
Pharmaceutic interaction occurs when physical or chemical reactions take place as a result of mixing of drugs in a syringe or other container
ethical products products for which manufacturer has voluntarily limited their sale to veterinarians as a marketing decision
Liniment Medicinal preparations for use on the skin as a counter irritant or to relieve pain.
Lotions liquid solutions or suspensions with soothing substances that are applied to skin
Ointment semisolid prep of oil and water plus medical agent
Microencapsulated when a protective environment is formed against harmful substances and the stability of the product is improved-masks flavor
Six Rights of Drug Administration 1. Right Patient 2. Right Drug (triple check) 3. Right dose 4. Right route 5. Right time and frequency 6. Right documentation
Boluses Large rectangular tablets used in treatment of large animals with aid of a balling gun.
An IV catheter should be flushed every _ to _ hours 8-12 hours
Any patient receiving IV fluid therapy should be monitored every _ to _ minutes 15-30 minutes
IV tubing should be changed after a _ to _ hour period 48-72 hours