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Patient Evaluation

Lab Testing

Lab Testing CBC Complete Blood Count (CBC) is a measurement of major ingredients in the blood.
Lab Testing CBC Complete Blood Count/ Red Blood Cells(RBC) (RBC) - contains hemoglobin necessary for oxygen transport - normal value = 4-6 mill/mm3 - high(RBC) = polycythemia = chronic tissue hypoxemia COPD - low (RBC) = anemia = blood loss, hemorrhage
Lab Testing CBC Complete Blood Count/Hemoglobin (Hb) - carries (1.34mL per gram Hb). - normal value is 12-16 gm/100mL blood (g/dL). - low Hb = anemia - high Hb= polycythemia
Lab Testing CBC Complete Blood Count/Hematocrit (Hct) - 100% of blood spin measure % in blood volume - normal value = 40-50% - low Hct = anemia - high Hct = polycythemia
Lab Testing CBC Complete Blood Count/White Blood Cells/(WBC) - WBC are used by the body to fight infections - normal value = 5,000- 10,000 per mm3 - increased wbc = leukocytosis = bacterial infection - decreased wbc = leukopenia = viral infection
Lab Testing CBC Complete Blood Count/Types of WBC/Neutrophils - neutrophils = major wbc * bands = immature cells 4% wbc increased with bacterial infec * segs = mature cells 60% wbc decreased with bacterial infec
Lab Testing CBC Complete Blood Count/Types of WBC/Eosinophils - associated with asthma; 2% of wbc increased with allergic reactions = produces yellow sputum.
Lab Testing CBC Complete Blood Count/Types of WBC/Monocytes - associated with tuberculosis; 3% of wbc
Lab Testing CBC Complete Blood Count/Types of WBC/Lymphocytes - 30% of wbc
Lab Testing CBC Complete Blood Count/Types of WBC/Basophils - 1% of wbc
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes K+,Na+,Cl-,HCO3(CO content) - elements required by the body for metabolism - abnormal electrolyte = abnormal body function - associated with fluid levels and kidney function
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes/Clinical Application - muscle weakness - soreness - nausea -mental changes = lethargy, dizziness, drowsiness All assoc = electrolyte imbalance
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes/K+(Potassium) - K+ = major intracellular cation - important for acid-base balance; cardiac muscle - normal = 4.0 - range = 3.5-4.5
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes/K+ (Hypokalemia) - low K+ occurs with * metabolic alkalosis * excessive excretion * renal loss * vomiting * flattened T-wave on EKG
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes/K+ (Hyperkalemia) - high K+ * kidney failure * spiked T-wave (metabolic acidosis)
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes/Na+(Sodium) - major extracellular cation controlled by the kidneys. - normal =( 140) - range = (135-145) - Na+ is retained in exchange for K+
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes/Na+(Sodium)/Hyponatremia - low Na+ = - fluid loss from: * diuretics * vomiting * diarrhea - fluid gain from: * CHF, IV therapy
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes/Na+(Sodium)/Hypernatremia high Na+ = dehydration)
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes/Chloride (Cl-) - major extracellular anion - levels are closely associated with sodium (Na+) - normal 90mEq/L - range: 80-100
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes/Chloride (Cl-)/Hypochloremia - low Cl- = metabolic alkalosis
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes/Chloride (Cl-)/Hyperchloremia - high Cl- = metabolic acidosis
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes/Bicarbonate/HCO3 - total CO2 content - most of CO2 in the blood is carried as HCO3. this changes total CO2 content = change in blood base.
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes/Bicarbonate/HCO3/Increased CO2 - increased CO2 content = increase HCO3 = metabolic alkalosis
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes/Bicarbonate/HCO3/Decreased CO2 - decreased CO2 content = decreased HCO3 = metabolic acidosis
Lab Testing Chemistry/Electrolytes/PCO2 - is the opposite of HCO3 - normal = (24) - range = (22-26) - increased PCO2 = respiratory acidosis - decreased PCO2 = respiratory alkalosis
Lab Testing Chemistry/Creatinine - creatinine = excreted by the kidneys - evaluates kidney function - normal value = 0.7 - 1.3mg/dL - more specific than BUN
Lab Testing Chemistry/Blood urea nitrogen BUN - evaluates kidney function - normal value = 8-25mg/dL - increased BUN = kidney failure
Lab Testing Chemistry/Sputum Analysis/ Amount - small - moderate - large - copious
Lab Testing Chemistry/Sputum Analysis/ Consistency - thin - thick -tenacious
Lab Testing Chemistry/Sputum Analysis/ Color/Clear - clear = normal - yellow = presence wbc = bacterial infection
Lab Testing Chemistry/Sputum Analysis/ Color/Mucoid - mucoid = white/gray = chronic bronchitis
Lab Testing Chemistry/Sputum Analysis/ Color/Yellow
Lab Testing Chemistry/Sputum Analysis/ Color/Green - green = stagnant sputum = gram negative bacteria = * bronchiectasis * pseudomonas
Lab Testing Chemistry/Sputum Analysis/ Color/Brown/dark - brown/dark = old blood
Lab Testing Chemistry/Sputum Analysis/ Color/Bright Red - bright red = hemoptysis * bleeding tumor * TB
Lab Testing Chemistry/Sputum Analysis/ Color/Pink frothy - pink frothy = pulmonary edema
Lab Testing Chemistry/Sputum Analysis/ Sputum Culture - identify the bacteria present
Lab Testing Chemistry/Sputum Analysis/ Sensitivity - identify what antibiotics will kill the bacteria
Lab Testing Chemistry/Sputum Analysis/ Gram Stain - identify whether it is gram positive or gram negative
Lab Testing Chemistry/Sputum Analysis/ Acid Fast - identify mycobacterium tuberculosis
Lab Testing Chemistry/Sputum Analysis/ culture, sensitivity, grams stain - can be done: * blood * urine * pleural sample - collect in morning prior to mouth-care, meals& treatments
Lab Testing Chemistry/Coagulation Studies/Clotting Time - coagulation studies are a series of test that quantify the clotting mechanisms of the body.
Lab Testing Chemistry/Coagulation Studies/Clotting Time/Measure - measured by puncturing the skin and measuring how long it takes to stop bleeding
Lab Testing Chemistry/Coagulation Studies/Clotting Time/Normal - normal value = up to 6 minutes
Lab Testing Chemistry/Coagulation Studies/Clotting Time/Indications - evaluation of preoperative patients for bleeding risk - evaluate= bleeding signs/symptoms - diagnose = disseminated intravascular coagulation - monitor = anticoagulant therapy
Lab Testing Chemistry/Coagulation Studies/Platelet Count - important for blood coagulation by forming blood clots - analysis = number, size, and shape of platelets if defect is suspected
Lab Testing Chemistry/Coagulation Studies/Platelet Count/ Normal - normal value = 150,000 - 400,000/mm3
Lab Testing Chemistry/Coagulation Studies/Platelet Count/Abnormal - decreased values are associated with bone marrow function
Lab Testing Chemistry/Coagulation Studies/Activated Partial Thromboplastin (APTT) - measures the length of time required for plasma to form fibrin clot.
Lab Testing Chemistry/Coagulation Studies/Activated Partial Thromboplastin (APTT)/Normal Value - normal value = 24-32secs - used to monitor heparin therapy
Lab Testing Chemistry/Coagulation Studies/Prothrombin Time (PT) - similar to APTT for monitoring Warfarin (Coumadin)therapy
Lab Testing Chemistry/Coagulation Studies/Prothrombin Time (PT)/NV - normal value = 12-15 secs - > greater than 30 secs may cause spontaneous bleeding
Lab Testing Chemistry/Coagulation Studies/Thrombin Time (TT) - normal value = 7-12 secs
Lab Testing Chemistry/Urinalysis - reflects metabolic status - screening for kidney diseases
Lab Testing Chemistry/Urinalysis - can indicate urinary tract infection before blood cultures - also measure * appearance, * specific gravity, * pH, * glucose, * ketones, * blood bilirubin * sedimentation
Created by: sukar