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Junior Cert

Heat Heat is a form of energy.
Heat Units It is measured in Joules.
Heat Travel from..? Heat moves from hot areas to colder areas.
Conduction Conduction is the transfer of heat through a solid from particle to particle. Heat moves but particles don't.
Convection Convection is the transfer of heat through a liquid or gas. Molecules of the liquid or gas move upwards and carry the heat.
Radiation Radiation is the transfer of heat by rays without needing a medium to pass through.
Insulator Poor conductors.
Conduction Experiment Different Solid metal and non-metal Bars (horizontal - one end in boiling water), Pin and wax.
Convection Experiment Potassium Permanganate Crystals in water in a beaker. Lighted Candle under crystal.
Expansion and Contraction Solids, liquids and gases all expand when heated and contract when cooled
Bimetallic Strip A bimetallic strip consists of two metals (e.g.Copper and Iron) fused together which expand a different amount when heated. This causes the strip to bend when heated. They are used in thermostats, e.g. the thermostat in a smoke alarm.
Water's Strange Property Water is at its most dense at 4 degrees Celsius. When cooled below or heated above 4 degrees, it begins to expand.
Experiment: Expansion Contraction of Solids Ball and Ring. Ball expands when heated (doesn't fit through ring) and contracts when cooled.(passes through ring)
Experiment: Expansion Contraction of Liquids Round bottomed Flask with straw completely full. Level rises when heated.
Experiment: Expansion Contraction of gases Empty Round bottomed flask with straw. Straw placed in water. Bubbles with expansion. Water sucked up straw when cooled.
Temperature Temperature is a measurement of heat.
Units of Temperature Temperature is measured using a thermometer. It is measured in degrees Celsius.
Freezing and Boiling points of Water. Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius and boils at 100 degrees Celsius.
Amount of Heat Energy. The amount of heat in a substance depends on the substance, its temperature and it’s mass.
Latent Heat. Heat that cause a change in state but not a change in temperature e.g. when ice melts with no rise in temperature.
Effect of Increased Air Pressure on the Boiling Point of Water Raises the Boiling Point above 100 degrees Celcius
Effect of lowering the Air Pressure on the Boiling Point of Water Decreases the Boiling Point above 100 degrees Celcius
Effect of Dark Coloured Cans on heat transfer by radiation Lose heat rapidly
Effect of Light (silver) Coloured Cans on heat transfer by radiation Lose heat slowly
Poor Conductors Polystyrene, Dry Air, Water, All are good insulators
Poor Insulators Metals. All are good conductors
Heat travels in 3 ways Conduction, Convection & Radiation
To Investigate Conduction and Convection in Water Experiment Test tube with water, ice and a coin to weigh it down. Boil the water at the mouth of the tube with a bunsen burner while ice stays at bottom
To Show Transfer of Heat by Radiation Two cans - one shiny outer surface & one dull black outer surface both filled with boiling water. Thermometers in each show a drop in temp with the black can losing heat faster.
Cooling Curve A graph showing how temperature changes over time as a substance cools.
Latent Heat of Fusion When heat changes a solid to a liquid with NO temperature change
Latent Heat of Vapourisation When heat changes a liquid into a gas with NO change in temperature
How to show Water expands when cooled below 4 degrees celsius Place a glass bottle (with a tightly fitting lid) filled to the top with water in a freezer overnight. It shatters due to the water expanding as it turns to ice
Created by: p-furl1
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