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CSA of head

Lee's cross-sectional anatomy of the head

The Brain outgrowth of the spinal cord. enclosed in the skull.processes and interprets sensory impulses.weighs about 3 lbs.
The brains main parts: The brainstem The cerebellum The inner and outer forebrain (these form the cerebrum)
BRAINSTEM Approximately 3 in. long It is the upper club end of the spinal cord It Contains three parts: Medulla Pons Midbrain
Medulla at the lower end of the brainstem. Contains the nerve centers that control breathing, heartbeat, and other vital body processes.
PONS Prominent band of fibers between the midbrain and medulla
MIDBRAIN Smallest division located between the diencephalon and the pons. It surrounds the cerebral aqueduct that contains the CSF
CEREBELLUM Located posterior to the pons and the medulla It occupies the posterior cranial fossa controls muscle tone and coordinates muscular activities of the body
CEREBRUM Largest portion of the brain two cerebral hemispheres connected by white matter ( corpus callosum) White matter- contains nerve fibers covered with a white fatty substance called myelin Grey matter- contains nerve cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers
VENTRICLES Fluid filled cavities within the brain There are 4 ventricles in the brain: Two lateral ventricles Third ventricle Fourth ventricle
TWO LATERAL VENTRICLES One in each hemisphere The largest portion of the lateral ventricle is located in the parietal lobe These ventricles extend into the frontal lobes as anterior horns and into the temporal lobes as the inferior horns
THIRD VENTRICLE narrow midline chamber enclosed by the DIENCEPHALON lateral walls formed by the right and left masses of the THALAMUS The EPITHALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS form the roof and floor communicates with fourth by the AQUEDUCT of SYLVIUS
FOURTH VENTRICLE It lies internal to the PONS and MEDULLA at the level of the cerebellum It has two openings in its lateral walls called the FORAMINA of LUSCHKA It also, contains the FORAMEN of MAGENDIE located in the medial aspect of the dorsal wall
MENINGES Dura Mater Arachnoid Pia Mater
DURA MATER It is the outermost layer comprised of tough fibrous connective tissue It serves to support and protect the brain
ARACHNOID the middle layer extremely thin and delicate separated from the dura mater by a small subdural space that contains only enough CSF to keep the surrounding structures moist The arachnoid is separated from the pia mater by the sub-arachnoid space
PIA MATER It is the innermost layer of the meninges It is very thin, highly vascular and adheres to the cortical tissue of the brains outer surface It closely follows the contour of the brain
Cortex Outer cover of layer of cerebrum located in the gray matter
Myelinated Fibers Axoms – improves conduction located in the white matter
Gyri Ridges on the surface of the cortex
Sulci Furrows between the gyri
Longitudinal Fissure A fold of dura mater that separates the 2 hemispheres
Superior Sagittal Sinus Blood reservoir Triangular in cross section near the falx cerebri
Corpus Callosum White matter joining 2 cerebral hemispheres
Genu Anterior end of corpus callosum
Splenium Posterior end of the corpus callosum
Cerebral Lobes Frontal ( 2 ) Temporal ( 2 ) Insulates the cerebral lobe Involved with autonomic and somatic activities
Choroid Plexus Vascular structure in roof of ventricle Produces CSF
Caudate Nucleus One of the largest of the basal ganglia Serves as a relay station between the thalamus & cerebral cortex Consists of a head body and tail
Lentiform Nucleus Centrally located in the basal ganglia Important role in movement Biconvex lens shaped mass
Putamen Also called straitum External lateral part of the lentiform One of the most prominent nuclei
Globus pallidus Also referred to as straitum Medial- internal part of the lentiform One of the two most prominent nuclei
Amaygdaloid Nucleus Located anterior to the putamen Lateral portion of the pituitary Part of the limbic system
Claustrum Basal ganglia
Thalamus 2 large oval masses of gray matter Act as relay station
Dura Mater Thin delicate middle membrane covering the brain Spider like projections that attach to pia mater
Subarachnoid space CSF circulates here Located between arachnoid & pia mater
Lateral Ventricle Cavity in each lateral hemisphere with CSF
Septum Pellucidum Thin partition separating lateral ventricles
Fornix Enlargement of the septum pellucidum
Third Ventricle Cavity where CSF fluid circulates Enclosed by the diencephalon
Midbrain Located between the brainstem & cerebrum above the pons Smallest portion of the brainstem
Pons Bridge located between medulla oblongata & midbrain
Diencephalon Part of the brain located between the cerebrum & midbrain
Cerebral Peduncles Rope like bundles located on the ventral midbrain
Substantia Nigra Produce dopamine Area of deep pigmented neurons Thought to be involved in motor function
Interpeduncular Cistern Contains the “Circle of Willis” An anastmoses in the brain for blood circulation Joins the 2 anterior middle and post anteriors to form a circle of circulation
Mammary Bodies Two spherical masses Function in swallowing
Optic Tracts Optic nerves Located posterior to the optic chiasma
Cerebral Aqueduct A cavity that connects the third and fourth ventricals
Corpora Quadrigemia Four oval bodies Posterior to midbrain Located in the visual pathway
Superior Cistern Contains the great cerebral vein and pineal gland
Cerebellum Second largest part of the brain Located posterior to the pons and medulla Inferior to the cerebrum
Vermis Connects the cerebellar hemispheres
Tentorium Cerebelli Located between the cerebrum and cerebellum
Diencephalon Part of the brain located between the cerebrum and midbrain
Cerebrum Largest portion of the brain Controls motor function Divided into six lobes in each hemisphere: Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal Limbic Insula
Circle of Willis If one of the arteries of the brain becomes blocked or impaired, there is always an alternate route for blood circulation
Medulla Oblongata Most inferior part / the brain stem Contains the spinal cord Contains centers for regulation of heartbeat, respiration, blood pressure Contains reflux centers control swallowing, coughing, sneezing and vomiting Relays messages to parts of the brain
Created by: bunkie2801