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# Energy Forms

### heating and cooling

TermDefinition
Kinetic Theory an explanation of how the particles in matter behave
Matter any substance that has mass and occupies space
Thermal Energy the total energy of a materials particles resulting from forces that act within or between particles
Particle Theory Motion is so slow there is no energy left
Vaporization the particles in a liquid aquire enough kinetic energy to escape the alternate forces
Evaporation occurs at the surface of a liquid(can occur below the boiling point)
Boiling pressure of vapor in the liquid is equal to the external pressure acting on the surface of the liquid
Atmospheric Pressure molecules push against anything
Heating Curve shows the temperature and state change of a substance as thermal energy is added
Plasma super heated gas particles move so fast that electrons are stripped off
Thermal Expansion an increase in the size of a substance when the temp. increases
Buoyancy the ability of a fluid to exert upward force on an object immersed in it
Archimedes Principle the buoyancy force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Pascal's Princple pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted through it
Bernoulli's Principle as the velocity of a fluid increases the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases
Viscosity the resistance to fluid by fluid
Convection the transfer of thermal energy in a fluid movement from warmer to cooler
Conduction the transfer of thermal energy by collisions between partices
Boyles Law if you decrease the volume of a gas and keep temperature the same the pressure increases
Charles Law volume temperature relationship the volume of a gas increases as the temperature increases(if pressure is constant)
Ideal Gas Law combination of Boyle and Charles Laws P=nRT
Atom the smallest piece of matter that still retains the properties of the element
Nucleus the small positively charged center of the atom
Protons positively charged particles
Neutrons no charge
Electrons negative charge
Quarks protons and neutrons are made of small particles called quarks. Scientists have found 6 quarks
Electron Cloud the area around the nucleus where electrons are most likely to be found
Atomic Number the number of protons in an atom
Mass Number the number of protons and number of neutrons
Average Atomic Mass the weighted average mass of the mixture of its isotopes
Isotope an atom with the same amount of protons and a different # of neutrons #neutrons=Mass number*atomic number
Periodic Table element are arranged by increasing atomic number and by changes in physical and chemical properties
Dmitri Mendeleev ordered elements in ordered by mass and discovered patterns
Henry Moseley changed the order to increasing atomic number => this is todays table
Rows of Elements periods
Columns of Elements groups have similar properties
Electron Cloud electrons have energy levels or shells (electrons farthest from nucleus have most energy)
Electron Dot Diagram uses dots to represent electrons in the outer level
General Rule elements that have 3 or fewer electrons in the outer shell are metals
Malleable metals can be hammered or rolled into sheets
Ductile metals can be drawn into wires
Metallic Bonding outer level electrons are not held closely and more freely in a cloud around the positively charged nuclei
Alkali Metals good conductors, softer, malleable, and VERY reactive
Alkaline Earth Metals have 2 valence electrons
Transition Elements from bright colors
Created by: owlbewise13