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CXR comp

chest comp questions

What makes up the respiratory system? pharynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs
Which is more anterior – the trachea or esophagus? trachea
how is the location of the trachea changed in the thorax, and why? it shifts slightly to the right due to the aorta
what is the carina? the last tracheal cartilage and point of bifurcation of the trachea
how do the left and right primary bronchi differ? the right primary bronchi is shorter, wider, and more vertical than the left
which primary bronchus are foreign bodies most likely to lodge in? right
what are the subdivisions of the bronchial tree? trachea-primary bronchi-secondary bronchi-tertiary bronchi-bronchioles-terminal bronchioles-alveolar duct-alveolar sac-aveoli
what is the primary function of the lungs? oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange
what type of tissue are the lungs comprised of? parenchyma
which lung is shorter? By how much and why? the right lung is about 1” shorter and broader due to the location of the liver
what is found in the hilum? bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves.
What tissue covers the outside of the lung? pleura
What are the layers of the pleura and where are they found? parietal (outside) and visceral (inside/covering)
Pleural cavity serous fluid filled space between the parietal and visceral pleura
What are the lobes of the right lung? superior, middle, inferior
What are the lobes of the left lung? superior and inferior
What are the fissures of the right lung? What do they divide? horizontal (superior and middle lobes) and oblique (middle and inferior lobes)
What are the fissures of the left lung? What do they divide? oblique ( superior and inferior lobes)
What are the borders of the mediastinum? sternum (anteriorly), spine (posteriorly), lungs (laterally)
Name all the structures of the mediastinum heart, great vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymphatics, nerves, fibrous tissue, fat
Which photo cells are used for a lateral chest? middle only
Which photo cells are used for a PA chest? lateral
Name all body habitus from thinnest to largest asthenic, sthenic, hyposthenic, hypersthenic
What scale of contrast do we want on a CXR? long, low contrast
What types of techniques would we use on a CXR? Why? high kVp to penetrate the mediastinum
What type of filter would be used for a CXR? trough
Why is a chest x-ray done upright? to decrease engorgement of pulmonary vessels, depress diaphragm, demonstration of air/fluid levels
Why are lateral chest x-rays done left? to decrease magnification of the heart
Why do we use a 72” SID for a CXR? decrease magnification of the heart and increase recorded detail.
Where should the top of the film be for the PA CXR? 1 ½ to 2” above the shoulders
Why is the exposure made after the 2nd full inspiration? for maximum expansion of the lungs
What is the CR entry for a chest x-ray? perpendicular to the MSP entering at the level of T7
at what level does the carina lie? T4-T5
at what level should an ET tube be placed? T3-T4 (above the carina)
what is the inner part of a vertebral disk called? nucleus pulposes
what is the outer part of a vertebral disk called? annulus fibrosus
what happens when the patient leans forward on the PA? foreshortening resulting in distortion
Created by: annaluz87