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Oncology

Reproductive, Skeletal, and Misc Cancers

QuestionAnswer
What is the most common malignancy in males in the United States? Prostate cancer (pg 823 W/L)
What is the standard method of diagnosis for prostate cancer in the United Sates? Transrectal sonography guided needle biopsy (page 825 W/L)
What are the most common presenting symptoms in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer? decreased urinary stream, frequency, difficulty in starting urination, dysuria, and infrequently hematuria (page 824 W/L)
A firm area above the prostate suggests that the _______ _______ are involved by malignancy. seminal vesicles (page 825 W/L)
Most _______ ________ are multifocal and develop in the peripheral glands of the prostate, whereas ______ _______ ________ arises from the central (periurethral) portion. prostate carcinomas; benign prostatic hyperplasia (824 W/L)
What age should men begin having prostate screenings? 50 (825 W/L)
What does PSA stand for? Prostate-specific antigen (page 824 W/L)
Patients with resectable stage T1 or T2 prostate cancer who are in good general medical condition and have a life expectancy of at least 10 years are candidates for _____ _______. radical prostatectomy (828 W/L)
What are the commonly used isotopes for prostate cancer patients? I-125 and Pd-103 (pg 832 W/L)
Name three possible side effects a prostate patient may experience when receiving radiation therapy. diarrhea, rectal discomfort, abdominal cramping Pg 832 W/L
Cryptorchidism is a condition where __________ the testes do not descend W/L page 850
How do testicular tumors typically present themselves? painless swelling or mass in the scrotum W/L page 850
If a testicular tumor is suspected, a testicular _______ should be performed. sonogram W/L page 850
Where does seminoma spread to initially? lymph nodes in the retroperiteneum pg 851 W/L
Less than ____ % of patients have stage III or IV testicular disease. 5 page 851 W/L
The most commonly applied treatment for patients with stage I seminoma is ____ radical orchiectomy pg 851 W/L
The initial treatment for nonseminoma is radical orchiectomy followed by ______ based chemothersapy. cisplatin page 852 W/L
What is the recommended dose to retroperiteneal and pelvic lymphatics for stages Ia and IIA testicular disease? 2500 cGy in 10 fractions of 180 cGy pg 853 W/L
What is the 5-year survival rate for stage I testicular seminoma? 95-97% page 853 W/L
Name two general side effects of radiation treatment for testicular cancer. nausea and diarrhea page 854 W/L
HPV is the most common risk factor for what type of cancer? Cervix RTE page 33
Name two common presenting symptoms of cervical cancer. foul smelling discharge and increased menstrual bleeding. RTE page 33
What is the most common histopathology of cervical cancer? Squamous cell carcinoma RTE page 34
How does cervical cancer spread? Direct extension and lymphatics RTE page 34
What is the most common GYN cancer Endometrium RTE page 34
How is endometrial cancer diagnosed? Dilation and Curettage RTE page 34
What is the most common histopathology of endometrial cancer? Squamous cell carcinoma RTE page 34
Which cancer is the most common cause of GYN cancer death? Ovarian RTE 34
What is the most common histopathology of ovarian cancer? Epithelial RTE 35
Which treatment modality is rarely used when treating for ovarian cancer? Radiation therapy RTE page 35
Radiation therapy is rarely used in the treatment of ovarian cancer due to the potential spread in the lining of the _________. Abdomen RTE page 35
Vulva cancer is associated with _______ and _______. Smoking and HPV RTE page 35
Red, white, or pink bumps, itching, bleeding, and discharge are symptoms associated with cancer of the vagina or vulva? Vulva RTE page 35
Bleeding, discharge, mass, and painful urination are symptoms associated with cancer of the vagina or vulva? Vagina RTE page 35
What is the most common histopathology of cancer of the vagina and vulva? Squamous cell carcinoma
Name the two types of lymphoma. Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin RTE page 35
What is the long-term side effect for chemotherapy for lymphoma? Sterility RTE page 35
What is the overall survival rate for Hodgkin lymphoma? 90% RTE page 36
Ages 15-40 and over 55 are two age groups affected by Hodgkin or Non-Hodgkin lymphoma? Hodgkin RTE page 36
Main signs and symptoms for lymphoma may include: Painless swelling of nodes, fever, drenching night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, coughing or breathing problems RTE page 36
The Reed-Sternberg cell is characteristic of what type of lymphoma? Hodgkin RTE page 36
The two main types of lymphocytes that develop into lymphomas are: B cells and T cells RTE page 36
What is the most common staging system for lymphomas? Ann Arbor RTE page 36
What is the most common treatment combination for lymphoma? Chemotherapy and radiation therapy
Name the four types of leukemia. ALL, AML, CLL, CML RTE page 41
Which leukemia is formed in the bone marrow cells that form lymphocytes? ALL
Which leukemia is formed in the bone marrow cells that form RBC and platelets? AML
Which leukemia is formed in the lymphocytes and replace normal cells in the bone marrow and lymph nodes, weakening the immune response? CLL RTE 41
Which leukemia is formed in the myelocytes? CML RTE 41
_______ leukemias usually show more dramatic remission and survival benefits than _____ leukemias. Acute/Chronic RTE page 42
Leukemia can occur at any age, but is more common in people over ____ years old. 60 RTE 42
What are the most common types of leukemia in adults? AML and CLL RTE page 42
What is the most common type of leukemia in children? ALL RTE page 42
Name three diagnostic tests for leukemia. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, and spinal tap RTE 42
What is the most effective treatment for leukemia? Chemotherapy RTE 42
______ bone tumors are not as common as metastatic lesions. Primary RTE 43
What is the most common bone tumor in adults and children? Osteosarcoma RTE 43
Where are osteosarcomas most likely to occur? Pelvis, arms, and legs RTE 43
Where is ewing sarcoma most commonly found? Diaphysis of long bones RTE 43
Chondrosarcoma is composed of _______ elements. Cartilaginous RTE 43
This type of bone tumor develops in the plasma cells of bone marrow. Symptoms are bone pain, bleeding, infections, and renal failure. Multiple Myeloma RTE 43
______ bone tumors are the most common and frequently occur in the spine and pelvis. Metastatic RTE 43
What is the most common type of cancer? Skin RTE 43
_____ ______ includes all skin cancers except malignant melanomas. Non-melanoma RTE 43
Name the two types of non-melanoma skin cancers. Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma RTE 44
Where is basal cell carcinoma most commonly found? Head and neck area RTE 44
Where does squamous cell most commonly occur? Sun exposed areas RTE 44
Name two treatment options for skin cancer. Radiation therapy and Moh’s surgery. RTE 44
What cells do melanoma originate from? Melanocytes RTE 44
Where is the most common site for metastatic melanoma? Lung RTE 44
Prognosis for melanoma is determined by what staging systems? Breslow and Clark RTE 44
These type of tumors are below the skin surface and appear as raised, red, purple, or brown blotches. Kaposi Sarcoma RTE 44
This type of non-hodgkin lymphoma is the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Mycosis fungoides. RTE 44
Created by: kathrynchambers