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AP Psych Ch.11 Vocab

Intelligence - AP Psychology, Chapter 11

TermDefinition
Intelligence The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations
General intelligence (g) A factor that, according to Charles Spearman, underlies all mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test. (ex: people who score very high in one section generally score higher than average on others
Multiple intelligences The idea, spearheaded by Howard Gardner, that intelligence comes in different packages (ex: brain damage can affect one ability but not the others, savant syndrome is when people score low on intelligence tests but are brilliant at one specific thing)
Triarchic theory Robert Sternberg's theory that there are three types of intelligence: -analytical (academic problem-solving): assessed by intelligence tests -creative: adapting to new situations/generating new ideas -practical: required for everyday tasks
Emotional intelligence The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
Social intelligence The ability to effectively navigate and negotiate complex social situations
Creativity The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas (uses divergent thinking rather than the convergent thinking used on intelligence tests)
Alfred Binet Developed the first intelligence test after France instated mandatory schooling, said children follow the same pattern when developing but some move faster than others. Mental age is the chronological age typical of a given level of performance.
Stanford-Binet test The widely-used revision (adapted for U.S. culture by Lewis Terman) of Binet's original test
Aptitude vs. achievement test Aptitude test - designed to predict a person's future performance Achievement test - designed to reflect what a person has learned
David Wechsler Created the most widely-used intelligence test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and a version for children. It gives an overall score and subscores - striking differences between subscores can indicate possible disorders
Standardization Defining meaningful scored by comparing to a pre-tested group
Normal curve The bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes
Reliability The extent to which a test yields dependably consistent scores (can be measured by comparing to another test or splitting it in half and seeing if the scored from each section agree)
Validity The extent to which a test correctly assesses what it is supposed to
Content validity The extent to which a test samples the behavior of interest (ex: testing driving ability on a driving test)
Predictive validity The extent to which a test predicts the behavior of interest (ex: aptitude tests predicting future achievement)
Down syndrome A disorder of varying severity caused by an extra chromosome 21
Heritability vs. environment in IQ scores Identical twins often have similar IQs and grey matter mass, and mouse genes have been manipulated to produce smarter mice. But the amount of human contact in childhood impacts development, and people perform differently based on race and gender.
Stereotype threat A self-confirming concern that one will be less successful because of a stereotype - often causes women and minorities to underestimate themselves on tests
Created by: emilyjane1221