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Pharmacology

Pain Management

QuestionAnswer
Pain involves both_______ and _______ components? physical, psychological
5th vital sign? Pain
Recent-onset pain with generalized hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system Acute Pain
Usually has an identifiable, precipitating cause? Acute Pain
Pain that persists for at least three months beyond the usual course of an acute illness or injury? Chronic Pain
Types of pain receptors? mechanical, thermal, chemical
Electrophysiologic events at level of neuron for sensation and differentiation of various types of pain? Nociception
Noxious stimuli translated into electrical activity at nerve endings? Transduction
Nociceptive impulses carried to CNS? Transmission
Small, myelinated and rapid transmission? A-Delta Fibers
Good localization in conjunction with tactile receptors? A-Delta Fibers
Very small, nonmyelinated and slower transmission? C Fibers
Poor localization, associated with chronic and neuropathic pain? C Fibers
Include some nociceptors: fast pain (sharp), thermoreceptors (cold) and mechanoreceptors (some touch)? A-Delta Fibers
Include most nociceptors: slow pain (dull, ache) thermoreceptors (heat), itch receptors? C Fibers
Patients with chronic pain often have low levels of? Serotonin
Affects more than 1/3 of the US population? Chronic Pain
Most common syndrome of Chronic WIdespread Pain (CWP)? Fibromyalgia
Highest risk of fibromyalgia? Females, 60-79 y/o
Chronic Pain Malignancy includes...? Cancer, AIDS, ALS, MS, Sickle-cell, End-stage organ failure
Chronic Pain Non-malignancy includes...? Osteoarthritis, "back" pain, Neuropathic pain, Fibromyalgia, Sympathetic reflex dystrophy, post-op post-traumatic pain
Painful response to a stimulus usually not painful? Allodynia
Increased pain from a painful stimulus? Hyperalgesia
Disturbance in way that CNS handles, transmits, and processes pain? Central Sensitization
Signs and symptoms of chronic pain? Disturbed sleep, poor appetite/nutrition, medication dependence
Four A's of pain treatment outcomes...? Analgesia, ADL's, Adverse effects, Aberrant drug-taking behavior
Well localized, aching, throbbing, sharp, or pressure like pain is most likely? Somatic nociceptive pain
Diffuse, squeezing, cramping, or gnawing is usually? Visceral Nociceptive
Burning, tinging, shooting or shock like is? Neuropathic pain
WHO Analgesic Ladder is? Three step ladder
Step One of WHO Analgesic Ladder? use of nonopioid analgesics (1-3)
Step Two of WHO Analgesic Ladder? low dose opioid (4-6)
Step Three of WHO Analgesic Ladder? Opioids for severe pain, high doses (7-10)
Created by: txst spr 2009