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Pharmacology

TermDefinition
Absorption The process of moving a drug across body membranes
Adverse Effect Undesired, potentially harmful side effects of drugs
Agonist Drug that is capable of binding with receptors to induce a cellular response
Antagonist Drug that blocks the response of another drug
Bioavailability Ability of a drug to reach the bloodstream and its target tissues
Biotechnology The concepts of genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology
Biotransformation The goal of biotransformation is to change lipid-soluble drug molecules into water-soluble molecules that can be more easily excreted. The liver is the primary site.
Bolus Drugs that may be given all at once
Contraindication Reasons against giving a particular drug
Distribution The process of transporting drugs through the body
Duration The time between onset and disappearance of drug effects
Emulsion Another type of liquid medication form, in which the medication is contained in a mixture of water and oil bound together with an emulsifier
Enteral Taken into the gastrointestinal tract, primarily by mouth (orally)
Excretion The process of removing substances from the body
Hypersensitivity An adverse effect resulting from previous exposure to the drug or a similar drug
Idiosyncratic effect Unpredictable and unexplained drug reaction
Indication The reason or purpose for giving a medication
Local effect Agents that work at the site of application
Onset The time between administration of a drug and the first appearance of effects
Parenteral Any route other than the digestive tract, the most common of which are subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous
Pharmacodynamics Study of how the body responds to the drugs
Pharmacokinetics Study of how the drugs are handled by the body
Plasma protein binding Some drug molecules bind to proteins (albumins and globulins) contained in plasma—the liquid portion of blood
Reconstituted Powders that must be mixed with a liquid (reconstituted) to form a solution that can be administered by injection
Side effect A predictable but unintended effect of a drug
Solubility Ability to be dissolved
Solution A mixture of drug particles (called the solute) fully dissolved in a liquid medium (called the solvent such as water or saline)
Suspension A form in which solid undissolved particles float (are suspended) in a liquid
Synergist A drug that enhances the effect of another drug
Systemic effect Agents that work throughout the entire body
Topical Applied to the skin surface or a mucous membrane–lined cavity
Controlled substances In the United States, a drug whose use is restricted by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act; in Canada, a drug subject to guidelines outlined in the Canadian Narcotic Control Act
Narcotics Natural or synthetic drugs related to morphine; may be used as a broader legal term referring to hallucinogens, CNS stimulants, marijuana, and other illegal drugs
DEA Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) of the Department of Justice was established to enforce the Controlled Substances Act. It sets standards for handling controlled substances and has the legal authority to enforce those standard
FDA Food and Drug Administration- U.S. agency responsible for the evaluation and approval of new drugs
The Joint Commission Evaluates and accredits approximately 16,000 health care organizations and programs in the United States
OTC Over the counter, category of medications that did not require a prescription
PDR Physicians' Desk Reference that provides easy access to information on several thousand medications used in medical and surgical practice
USP-NF The United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary assigns an official name to the new medication; this is usually the generic name
Created by: Katie_Eckart