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a&p final

QuestionAnswer
stages of rbc might not surprise you to see a few in circulating blood reticulocyte
normal range for hemoglobin 12-16
protein pigment after it has left the spleen during old rbc breakdown bilirubin
which organ releases erythropoietin kidney
which organ stimulated by erythropoietin to form additional rbc red bone marrow
an increase in eosinophil count seen in a differential may include allergic reaction
anemia lack of blood and/or its components
primary anemia due to lack of production or over-destruction of whole blood and/or its components
secondary anemia due to causes unrelated to lack of production or over destruction (hemorrhage)`
iron deficiency anemia (hypochromic anemia) causes: inadequate dietary intake of iron/mal-absorption Food sources: liver, spinach, raisins, beets Signs & sx reduction in Hgb and therefore o2 carrying ability fatigue, vertigo, pallor, tinnitus treatment: iron replacement therapy feosol, imferon
pernicious anemia megaloblastic anemia due to the Vitamin B12 deficiency caused by lack of intrinsic factor in gastric juice which is necessary to utilize B12. Causes: usual idiopathic sings & sx: due to anemia Tx lifetime treatment of B12 injections
aplastic anemia-not forming cells a condition of bone marrow failure which results in markedly reduced production of all cells. (pancytopenia) all cell deficiency Causes: congenital, idiopathic, radiation chemical Signs and sx: purpura, pyrexia Tx: blood transfusion,bone marrow transplant
erythroblastosis fetalis incompatibility of fetal & newborn blood resulting in maternal antibody activity against fetal RBC's (rh- mom rh+ fetus) Causes:rh incapability signs & sx: jaundice of nb within 24 hr Tx: determined by degree of maternal sensitization, effects antibodies
palliative treating symptoms only
sickle cell anemia results from a defective Hgb molecule (S) anoxia causes the rbc 2 roughen & become sickle shaped decreasing their ability to carry o2. tx: prevent from occurring signs sx: sporadic-precipitating factors of crisis.
thalassemia (cooley Anemia) vera- seldom live to be adults hereditary group of hemolytic anemias characterized by defective synthesis of Hgb and Rbc synthesis is impaired also. Causes: hereditary most common in greeks n Italians signs & SX: severe anemia, bone deformities failure to thrive mild anemia Tx of sympt
leukemias-form of cancer disorder of the blood forming organs(spleen, marrow,lymph)
acute leukemias widespread accumulation of immune, non-functioning wbc spill into blood, infiltrate tissues. decreased production of blood n increased susceptibility to infections tx: chemo
chronic leukemias gradual onset usually older 50-70 prognosis better than acute. wbc able to phagocytose somewhat
hemophilia- two types a&b hereditary bleeding disorder from deficiency of clotting factors a&B (A)80% of cases factor VIII (B)15% of cases factor IX. TX: no cure however if trauma quickly stop local bleedin
hemophilia sx easily bruised prolonged bleeding from mucous membrane. im hematomas from minor trauma hemorrhage into knees, elbows, ankles
thrombocytopenia purpura hemorrhages into the skin accompanies by reduction of the # of circulating platelets. Causes: decreased formation of platelets from chemical agents or infections or other blood disorders TX: steroids to promote capillary integrity,transfusion, splenectomy
thrombocytopenia purpura signs & sx petechaie, mucousal bleeding, ecchymosis(bruising)
vonwillebrands disease hereditary bleedind disorder characterized by prolonged bleeding time, moderate deficiency of factor VIII & platelets Causes: unknown Tx: shorten bleeding time by replacement of factor VIII
vonwillebrands disease signs & sx bleeding from skin and mucosa increased uterine bleeding in females
polycythemia excessive rbc 7,000,000-11,000,000 hct 70-80% causes hyperactivity of bone marrow, tumor TX: phlebotomy Signs & sx: increased blood volume increased bp blood flow reduced due to increased viscosity & tendency to clot. skin maybe purplish
hemochromatosis rare disorder characterized by iron overload in liver cells leading to cirrhosis, diabetes Sign & SX increased skin pigment (bronze) tx: removal of iron(phlebotomy) early detection prevents cirrhosis
mononucleosis infectious disease caused by Epstein-barr virus, spread by oral-pharyngeal route 80% carry virus in throat signs & sx fever sore throat ha malaise fatigue increased lymphs and monos tx: supportive bedrest
acute blood loss anemia persistent hemorrhage due to trauma or post surgical hemorrhage, coagulation defects, neoplasms or ulcers tx: control blood loss, transfusion Signs & sx: associated with hypoxia & hypovolemia
anemia secondary to chronic disease certain chronic diseases depress bone marrow function Causes: renal failure, viral hepatitis, cancer Tx: control blood loss transfusion
Created by: t4achange
 

 



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