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Nason Ch 9

Memory Vocab

Vocab WordDefinition
Memory the persistance of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Flashbulb Memory a clear memory of an emotionally signifigant moment or event
Encoding the processing of information into the memory system
Storage the retention of encoded information over time
Retrieval the process of getting information out of memory storage
Sensory Memory the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
Short-Term Memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten
Long-Term Memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system; includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
Working Memory a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information and of information retrieved from long-term memory
Automatic Processing unconscious encoding incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
Effortful Processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Rehearsal the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Spacing Effect the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
Serial Position Effect our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Visual Encoding the encoding of pictures; especially the way a word looks
Auditory Encoding the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
Semantic Encoding the encoding of meaning, especially the meaning of words
Imagery mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
Mnemonics memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Chunking organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
Echoic Memory a momentary sensory memory of of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
Iconic Memory a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Long-Term Potentiation an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
Amnesia the loss of memory
Implicit Memory retention independanct of conscious recollection
Explicit Memory memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
Hippocampus a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
Recall a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as in a fill-in-the-blank-test
Recognition a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as in a multiple choice test
Relearning a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Priming the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Deja Vu that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before". Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
Mood-Congruent Memory the tendency to recall experiences that are consistant with one's current good or bad mood
Proactive Interference the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Retroactive Interference the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Repression in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arrousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Misinformation Effect incorportating misleading information into one's memory of an event
Source Amnesia attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. This, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories
Created by: cookie_luv