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psy100-Memory

Psy 100 - OSU - Memory

QuestionAnswer
memory retention of information over time
suggestive memory techniques procedures that encourage patients to recall memories that may or may not have taken place
memory illusion false but subjectively compelling memory
span how much information a memory system can contain
duration legnth of time for which a memory system can retain information
sensory memory breif storage of perceptual information before it is passed to short term memory
iconic memory visual sensory memory
echoic memory auditory sensory memory
short-term memory memory system that retains information for limited durations
decay fading of information from memory
interference loss of information from memory because of competition from additional incoming information
retroactive inhibition interference with retention of old information due to acquisition of new information
proactive inhibition interference with acquisition of new information due to previous learning of information
Magic Number the span of short-term memory, according to George Miller: seven plus or minus two pieces of information
chunking organizing information into meaningful groupings, allowing us to extend the span of short-term memory
rehersal repeating information to extend the duration of retention in short term memory
maintenance rehersal repeating stimuli in their original form to retain them in short term memory
elaborative rehersal linking stimuli to each other in a meaningful way to improve retention of information in short-term memory
levels of processing depth of transforming information, which influences how easily we remember it
long-term memory sustained (from minutes to years) retention of information stored regarding our facts, experiences, and skills
permastore type of long term memory that appears to be permanent
primacy effect tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well
recency effect tendency to remember at the end of a list especially well
von Restorff effect tendency to remember distinctive stimuli better than less distinctive stimuli
serial position curve graph depicting the effect of both primacy and recency on people's ability to recall items on a list
semantic memory our knowledge of facts about the world
episodic memory recollection of events in our lives
explicit memory memories we recall intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness
implicit memory memories we don't deliberately remember or reflect on consciously
procedural memory memory for how to do things, including motor skills and habits
priming our ability to identify a stimulus more easily after we've encountered similar stimuli
encoding process of getting information into our memory banks
mnemonic a learning aid, strategy, or device that enhances recall
storage process of keeping information in memory
schema organized knowledge structure or mental model that we've stored in memory
retrieval reactivation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores
retrieval clues hints that make it easier for us to recall information
recall generating previously remembered information from an array of options
relearning reacquiring knowledge that we'd previously learned but largely forgotten over time
distributed versus massed practice studying information in small increments over time (distributed) versus in large incriments over a breif period of time (massed)
tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon experience of knowing that we know something but being unable to access it
encoding specificity phenomenon of remembering something better when the conditions under which we retrieve information are similar to the conditions under which we encoded it
context-dependent learning superior retrieval of memories when the external context of the original memories matches the retrieval context
state-dependent learning superior retrieval of memories when the organism is in the same psyological or psychological state as during encoding
long-term potentiation (LTP) gradual stregnthening of the connections among neurons from repetetive stimulation
retrograde amnesia loss of memories from our past
anterograde amnesia inability to encode new memories from our experiences
flashbulb memories emotional memories that are extraordinarily vivid and detailed
source monitoring ability to identify the origins of a memory
cryptomnesia failure to recognise that our ideas originated with someone else
misinformation effect creation of ficticious memories by providing misleading information about an event after it takes place
Created by: neill89