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MOD 6: nutrition


produced in liver by gluconeogenesis (when carbon skeletons from cpds (ie. AA, glycerol, pyruvate, lactate) are joined glucose
How can glucose be used by the body? 1. stored in the liver as glycogen2. absorbed and used directly by cells for energy3. Be converted to lipids for storage
How can fructose be used by the body? 1.Be absorbed directly into blood via digestive tract 2. can be converted to glucose in liver
How can galactose be used by the body? 1. converted to glucose in the body
Name 3 monosaccharides. glucose, fructose, galactose
Describe the process of gluconeogenesis. when muscle and liver glycogen is depleted through dietary restriction or exercise, Glucose is produced by the liver when carbon skeletons are joined from AA, Glycerol, Pyruvate, and Lactate.
Name 3 disaccharides. sucrose, lactose, maltose
You can assess nutritional status by...(4 things) dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, a physical exam, or lab tests
Glucose and Fructose make up what disaccaride? Sucrose
this is the most common disaccharide, consisting of 25% of the US total caloric intake Sucrose
this disaccaride is found in cane sugar, br sugar, syrup, and honey Sucrose
glucose and galactose make up this disaccharide lactose
this sugar is present in milk lactose
glucose and glucose make up this disaccharide maltose
this disachharide is present in cereals, beer, and seeds maltose
when multiple simple sugars are linked together they form polysaccharides
Starch is found in breads, cereals, pasta, potatoes, beans, seeds, corn, and is considered "good carbs"
What is the name for a non-starch polysaccharide? fiber (can be water soluble or water insoluble)
This forms of cellular matrix of plant stems, leaves, and skin of fruits and is resistant to human digestive enzymes. fiber
The name for a large polysaccharide synthesized from glucose in process of glucogenesis glycogen
How many calories can you get per one gram of glycogen? 4
What form of energy does the ms use for short term exercise glycogen
Where can glycogen be stored? mostly in the ms, but also in the liver
How much fiber should you get per day? 20-40 g
Should you get more water solube or water insolube fibers? What is the ratio? you should get more water insoluble 3:1
What type of fiber has been shown to lower LDLs? water soluble
What type of fiber passes quickly through the digestive tract leading to a soft stool? water insoluble
What are some examples of water soluble fibers? mucilage, and gum, found in oats, beans, brown rice, and fruits. these lower LDL's “bad cholesterols”
What are some examples of water insoluble fibers? cellulose and pectin found in whole grains and fruit and vegetables
Describe the process of glycogenolysis. glycogen is reconverted to glucose and the glucose is circulated in the blood to be delivered to the exercising muscles
What is the idea behind carb loading? (like pasta parties ect) the idea is to build up your storage of glycogen in the muscle so you wont deplete it for the big game and it takes longer for them to reach exhaustion
Name 3 function of Carbs. 1. main energy source that dirves ms contractions and the CNS2. assists in metabolism of lipids (if insufficient, it leads to ketosis and blood acidity)3. spares protein degradation to form glucose
What % of your total caloric intake should be carbs? 40-60% (they should be mostly complex carbs)
The higher the food on the glycemic index, the _______ the nutritional value. lower, b/c it takes longer to digest
What can increase smooth cells in the endothelium and can lead to plaque formation and has been linked to blood clots? Homocysteine
What % of your total caloric intake should be protein? 10-20% caloric intake, -daily requirement: 0.83 g/kg of body wt-2.0-4.0 g/kg for infants and growing children
What happens to excess protein? stored as body fat and causes increased stress on liver and kidneys
_______ fatty acids are most animal products, palm, coconut, veggie oils, shortening and hydrogenated margarine, tend to be solid at room temp Saturated
_______ fatty acids are usually liquid at room temp, olive, canola, peanut, sunflower,safflower, soybean, and corn oil, omega 3-fats found in certain fish (tuna, mackerel, sardines) Unsaturated
These are formed by linking proteins with triglycerides or phospholipids and provide mechanism of transport of lipids in blood stream lipoproteins
Name the functions of Lipids. 1.protection and insulation2.vitamin transporter3.energy source and reserve4.provides satiety—takes 3-4 hours to move from stomach
What is the dietary recommendation for lipids? no more than 30% (you want mostly unsaturated)
How many calories can you get from one gram of fat? 9
What are organic substances that are needed in very small amts by the body to perform highly specific metabolic functions to serve as regulators and coenzymes? vitamins
This type of vitamin can be stored in body and can become toxic if consume too much fat soluble
This type of vitamin will be excreted by the body if too much is consumed. water soluble
Name the functions of Minerals(5). -catylist for biological rex-aid in producing hormones-aid in absorption of vitamins-maintain water balance-only need to take if pregnant or lactating
What % of ones body weight is H2O? 40-70% (U NEED 2-3L per day)
What is the function of water in the body(3)? -solvent for chemical rex (transports nutrients into cells)-assists in regulation of temp-medium for removal of waste products
What are some instances when diseases that may put a higher risk for increased nutritional value? fever, surgery, infection, trauma-malabsorption ( with GI damage-impairment of activation of nutrient and abn loss of nutrients(with renal disease). drug action may prevent absorption or accelerate excretion
DID YOU KNOW? Poor nutrition and elevated insulin levels caused by increased sugar intake,can play a role in increasing inflammation.
Why might caffeine inhibit the ability to build muscle? It promotes cortisrole production whih is elevated in stressfull situations and surgery. If pt is having trouble building their quad ms, you should ask about caffeine intake.
Created by: PTROCKS