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Psychology

QuestionAnswer
psychology scientific study of behavior and mental process
phrenology defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics were localized to specific areas of the brain
structuralism a method by which the human mind is defined in the simplest components (Hemholtz)
clinical psychology modernly known as a branch of psychology that focuses on diagnosis and treatment of mental, behavioral and emotional disorders
psychoanalytic theory an approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts and behaviors
cognitive psychology interdisciplinary method that studies brain activity as it links with cognition
contemporary psychology biological, psychological, social-cultural
tenacity hearing a piece of info so often that you accept it as true
empiricism gaining knowledge through observation based on the five senses
illusory correlation phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between two variables when no actual relationship exists
synapse gap between the axon of one cell and the dendrites of another
neurotransmitters chemicals that are released and sent across the synapse
agonists drugs that increase action of a neurotransmitter
antagonists drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter
nervous system interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information throughout the body
central nervous system part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the body's organs and muscles
somatic nervous system set of nerves that conveys info between voluntary muscles and the central nervous system
autonomic nervous system set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs and glands
sympathetic nervous system set of nerves that prepares the body for action in challenging or threatening situations
parasympathetic nervous system set of nerves that helps the body return to normal resting state
pituitary gland master gland, releases a hormone that directs the functions of many other glands in the endocrine system
pineal gland produces melatonin, regulates sleep patterns
thyroid gland one of the largest glands, produces hormones that regulate growth and development through metabolism
adrenal gland regulates salt and metabolism
occipital lobe process visual info
parietal lobe processes info about touch, spatial sense and navigation
temporal lobe responsible for hearing and language
frontal lobe responsible for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory and judgment
motor cortex responsible for execution of movement
electroencephalogram used to record electrical activity in the brain
PET scan visual display of brain activity
MRI uses magnetic fields and radio waves, distinguish brain tissues
TMS delivers a magnetic pulse through the skull
brain plasticity brains ability to adapt to changes in sensory inputs
developmental psychology study of continuity and changes across the lifespan
teratogens agents (drugs or viruses) that damage the process of development
cephalocaudal rule "top to bottom" rule, infants will gain control of their head before they gain control of their feet
proximodistal rule "inside out" rule, infants will gain control of their torso before elbows and knees and will control their elbows and knees before hands and feet
sensorimotor stage birth- 2 years
schemas theories about the way the world works
assimilation way in which infants apply their schemas to new situations
accommodation process by which infants change their schemas due to new info
object permanence belief that an object still exists, even when you cannot see it
preoperational stage 2-6 years
concrete operational stage 6-11 years
formal operational stage 11 years and up
preconventional stage of morality stage in which the morality of an action is determined by the consequences for the actor
conventional stage stage where the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules
postconventional stage stage where the morality of the action is determined by a set of principles that reflect individual values
oral-sensory stage birth to 12-18 months
muscular-anal stage 18 months to 2 years
locomotor stage 3 to 6 years
latency stage 6 to 12 years
adolescence stage 12 to 18 years
young adulthood stage 19 to 40 years
middle adulthood stage 40 to 65 years
maturity stage 65 to death
memory ability to store and retrieve information over time
semantic encoding process of relating new info in a meaningful way to previously stored knowledge
visual imagery encoding process of storing new info by converting it into mental pictures
organizational encoding process of categorizing info according to relationships among series of items
sensory memory type of storage that holds sensory info for only a few seconds
iconic memory fast-decaying store of visual info
echoic memory fast-decaying store of auditory info
haptic memory fast-decaying store of touch-based info
short-term storage type of memory that holds non-sensory info for more than a few seconds but less than a minute
long-term storage type of memory that holds info for hours, days, weeks or years
semantic memory made up of facts and general knowledge
episodic memory pertains to our personal lives and experience
procedural memory pertains to motor and cognitive skills
anterograde amnesia inability to make new memories
retrograde amnesia inability to retrieve old memories
transience forgetting what happens with the passage of time
blocking failure to retrieve info from your memory, even when you try to access it
memory misattribution happens when we assign a memory, even when you try to access it
suggestibility tendency to incorporate misleading info from external sources into personal recollections
persistence intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget
learning relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
habituation process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to stimuli results in a reduction in responding
acquisition stage where the neutral stimulus is first associated with the unconditioned stimulus
second-order conditioning when a CS is paired with a NS causing the NS to become associated with the original stimulus
extinction gradual unlearning of a learned response when the CS is repeatedly given without the US
spontaneous recovery tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period
generalization when the CR is observed even when the CS is slightly different from the CS used in acquisition
personality individuals characteristic style of behaving, thinking and feeling
repression banishes anxiety related thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness
rationalization offers self-justifying explanations in place of real reasons for ones actions
projection disguising your own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
regression leads an individual faced with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage
displacement shifting sexual or aggressive impulses towards a more acceptable or less threatening object or person
identification dealing with feelings of threat and anxiety by unconsciously taking on the characteristics of another person who seems more powerful
sublimation channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable activities
social psychology how we think about, influence and relate to one another
social cognition process by which people come to understand others
attribution theory people provide casual explanations for someone else's behavior
situational attribution decision that a person's behavior is influenced by the environment
dispositional attribution decision that a person's behavior is influenced by their personality
fundamental-attribution error tendency to make a dispositional attribution when we should make a situational attribution
actor-observer effect tendency to make situational attributions for your actions but to make dispositional attributions for others actions
foot-in-the-door phenomenon tendency to agree with a larger request after fulfilling a smaller request
door-in-the-face phenomenon influence strategy that involves getting an individual to deny an outrageous request, making them more likely to agree to a reasonable request
cognitive dissonance theory unpleasant state that occurs when a person recognizes that there is inconsistency between attitudes and actions
social influence occurs when ones emotions, opinions or behaviors are affected by others
normative influence occurs when another person's behavior provides info about what is appropriate
informational influence occurs when another person's behavior provides info about what is true
social facilitation improved performance on tasks in the presence of others
social loafing tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort towards a goal than when tested individually
deindividuation loss of self-awareness and restraint in group situations
groupthink mode of thinking when the need for harmony in a group overrides reality
altruism behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself
equity people receive from a relationship what they give
self-disclosure act of reveling intimate aspects of oneself to others
reciprocal altruism behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned later
mere exposure effect repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases attraction
passionate love experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy and intense sexual attraction
companionate love experience involving affection, trust and concern for a partner's wellbeing
frustration-aggression hypothesis suggests that we aggress when our desires are frustrated
self-fulfilling prophecy tendency for people to behave as expected to behave
stereotype threat fear of confirming negative beliefs that others hold
perceptual confirmation tendency for people to see what they want to see
subtyping tendency to modify stereotypes after learning new info
anxiety disorders characterized by feelings of apprehension and anxiety
phobic disorders characterized by excessive fear and avoidance of specific things
obsessive compulsive disorders marked by persistence of unwanted thoughts and urges to engage in rituals that causes distress
reactive attachment disorder pattern of emotionally withdrawn behavior toward adult caregivers
post-traumatic stress disorder characterized by chronic thoughts or image of trauma
dysthymia similar to major depressive disorder but lasts 2 years
bipolar disorder characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood and low mood for at least 2 years
personality dirsoders characterized by enduring patterns of relating to others and controlling impulses
Thomas Hobbes believed that the mind and body are the same thing
William Wundt father of modern psychology
Rene Descartes believed that the mind and body were different but they interacted through a single link, the pineal gland
Carl Jung student of Freud
Alfred Adler founded individual psychology
Karen Horney founded feminist psychology, neo-Freudian
J.B. Watson founded behaviorism, classical conditioning
B.F. Skinner founded radical behaviorism
Abraham Maslow positive psychology, Maslow's hierarchy
Phineas Gage man who had a rod go through his head and his whole demeanor changed
Edward Thorndike law of effect (rewarded behavior is likely to occur again)
Albert Bandura found that children learn through imitating others who receive rewards and punishments
Heider Attribution Theory
Philippe Pinel presented a medical model to understanding demonic possession
Created by: mafreeman4