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Chapter 14

Theories of Personality

Personality The consistent enduring, and unique characteristics of a person
Unconscious The part of the mind that contains material of which we are unaware but that strongly influences conscious processes and behaviors
id The part of the conscious personality that contains our needs, drives, instincts, and repressed material
Ego The part of the personality that is in touch with reality and strives to meet the demands of the id and the superego in socially acceptable ways
Superego The part of the personality that is the source of conscience and counteracts the socially undesirable impulses of the id
Defense Mechanisms Certain specific means by which the ego unconsciously protects itself against unpleasant impulses or circumstances
Collective Unconscious The part of the mind that contains inherited instincts, urges, and memories common to all people
Archetype An inherited idea, based on the experiences of one's ancestors, which shapes one's perception of the world
Inferiority Complex A pattern of avoiding feeling of inadequacy rather than trying to overcome their source
Behaviorism Belief that the proper subject matter of psychology is objectively observable behavior and nothing else
Contingencies of Reinforcement The occurrence of rewards or punishments following particular behavior
Humanistic Psychology A school of psychology that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of maximum potential by each unique individual
Self-actualization The humanist term for realizing one's unique potential
Self One's experience or image of oneself, developed through interaction with others
Positive Regard Viewing oneself in a positive light due to positive feedback received from others
Conditions of Worth The conditions a person must meet in order to regard himself or herself positively
Unconditional Positive Regard The perception that individuals' significant others value them for what they are, which leads the individuals to grant themselves the same regard
Fully Functioning An individual whose person and self coincide
Trait A tendency to react to a situation in a way that remains stable over time
Cardinal Trait A characteristic or feature that is so preservable the person is almost identified with it
Factor Analysis A complex statistical technique used to identify the underlying reasons variables are correlated
Surface Trait A stable characteristic that can be observed in certain situations
Source Trait A stable characteristic that can be considered to be at the core of personality
Extravert An outgoing, active person who directs his or her energies and interests toward other people and things
Introvert A reserved, withdrawn person who is preoccupied with his or her inner thoughts and feelings
Created by: tompbr67
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