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MrsVanDyke Chapter 9

Personality

TermDefinition
Personality Psychological qualities that bring continuity to an individual's behavior in different situations and at different times
psychoanalysis Freud's system of treatment for mental disorders
Psychoanalytic Theory Freud's theory of personality
Unconscious In the Freudian theory, this is the psychic domain of which the individual is not aware but that is the storehouse of repressed impulses, drives, and conflicts unavailable to consciousness
Libido Freudian concept of psychic energy that drives individuals to experience sensual pleasure
Id Primitive, unconscious portion of the personality that houses the most basic drives and stores repressed memories
Superego Mind's storehouse of values, including moral attitudes learned from parents and from society; roughly the same as the common notion of the conscious
Ego Conscious, rational part of the personality, charged with keeping peace between the superego and the id
Psychosexual Stages Successive, instinctive patterns of associating pleasure with stimulation of specific bodily areas at different times in life
Oedipus Complex According to Freud, a largely unconscious process whereby boys displace an erotic attraction toward their mother to females of their own age and, at the same time, identify with their own fathers
Identification The mental process by which an individual tries to become like another person, especially the same-sex parent
Penis Envy According to Freud, the female desire to have a penis--a condition that usually results in their attraction to males
Fixation Occurs when psychosexual development is arrested at an immature stage
Ego Defense Mechanism Largely unconscious mental strategies employed to reduce the experience of conflict or anxiety
Repression An unconscious process that excludes unacceptable thoughts and feelings from awareness and memory
Projective Tests Personality assessment instruments, such as the Rorschach and TAT, which are based on Freud's ego defense mechanism of projection
Rorschach Inkblot Technique Projective test requiring subjects to describe what they see in a series of ten inkblots
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Projective test requiring subjects to make up stories that explain ambiguous pictures
Psychic Determinism Freud's assumption that all our mental and behavioral responses are caused by unconscious traumas, desires, or conflicts
Neo-Freudians Literally, "new Freudians"; refers to theorists who broke with Freud but whose theories rtain a psychodynamic aspect, especially a focus on mitivation as a source of energy for the personality
Personal Unconscious jung's term for that portion of the unconscious corresponding roughly to the Freudian id
Collective Unconscious Jung's addition to the unconscious, involving a reservoir for instinctive "memories", including the archetypes, which exist in all people
Archetypes The ancient memory images in the collective unconscious. Appear and reappear in art, literature, and folktales around the world
Introversion Jungian dimension that focuses on inner experience--one's own thoughts and feelings--making the introvert less outgoing and sociable than the extravert
Extraversion Jungian personality dimension involving one's attention outward, toward others
Basic anxiety Emotion, proposed by Karen Horney, that gives a sense of uncertainty and loneliness in a hostile world and can lead to maladjustment
Neurotic Needs Signs of neurosis in Horney's theory, these ten needs are normal desires carried to a neurotic extreme
Inferiority Complex Feeling of inferiority that is largely unconscious, with its roots in childhood
Compensation Making up for one's real or imagined deficiencies
Traits Stable personality characteristics that are presumed to exist within the individual and guide his or her thoughts and actions under various conditions
Central Traits According to trait theory, traits that form the basis of personality
Secondary Traits In Trait Theory, traits that form preferences and attitudes
Cardinal Traits Personality components that define people's lives; Very few individuals have cardinal traits
Self-Actualizing Personalities healthy individuals who have met their basic needs and are free to be creative and fulfill their potentialities
Fully Functioning Person Carl Roger's term for a healthy, slef-actualizing individual, who has a self-concept that is both positive and congruent with reality
Phenomenal Field Our psychological reality, composed of one's perceptions and feelings
Positive Psychology Recent movement within psychology, focusing on desirable aspectis of human functioning, as opposed to an emphasis on psychopathology
Reciprocal Determinism Process in which cognition, behavior, and the environment mutually influence each other
Locus of Control Individual's sense of where his or her life influences originate
Five-Factor Theory Trait perspective suggesting that personality is composed of five fundamental personality dimensions: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) Widely used personality assessment instrument that gives scores on ten important clinical traits
Reliability Attribute of a psychological test that gives consistent results
Validity Attribute of a psychological test that actually measures what it is being used to measure
Person-Situation Controversy Theoretical dispute concerning the relative contribution of personality factors and situational factors in controlling behavior
Type Refers to especially important dimensions or clusters of traits that are not only central to a person's personality but are found with essentially the same pattern in many people
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Widely used personality test based on Jungian types
Implicit Personality Theory Assumptions about personality tha tare held by people to simplify the task of understanding others
Fundamental Attribution Error Assumption that another person's behavior, Especially clumsy, inappropriate, or otherwise undesirable behavior, is the result of a flaw in the personality, rather than in the situation
Neuroticism Susceptibility to neurotic problems
Created by: MrsVanDyke